What Skills Do I Need as an Ordinary Seaman?

Seafarers are collectively referred to as the crew members of ships sailing the sea, and are generally divided into senior seafarers and ordinary seafarers. Senior seafarers are divided into management level and operation level: management level: chief engineer, chief mate, large tube ship, political commissar (only in China); operation level: second mate, second tube ship, third mate, three tube ship. Ordinary seafarers are also known as support-level sailor captains, captain captains, first water, second water, mechanics, etc., including chefs, clerks and so on. At present, most ships on the coast of China still have the position of supervisor, also known as the shipowner's representative, which should belong to the management level. Seafarers must not only have a strong physique and skilled professional skills, but also have good psychological qualities, strong environmental adaptability and emergency response capabilities. Seafarer occupations have quite high professional qualifications for employees.

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Career characteristics
When sailing a sea boat and crossing the sea, a seafarer is a special profession and he is protected by international conventions. Its professional characteristics are similar to other occupations, but there are many differences.
Professional knowledge is required to navigate and manage ships, which determines the technicality of the seafarer's profession;
Ocean-going freighters are generally more than 10,000 tons, and the crew of the ship is generally 19-24. In addition to the captain and political commissar, there are 8 senior crew members, 10 ordinary crew members, and 2 chefs. crew
Management level
Captain: The captain is the leader of the ship and is responsible for the safe transportation and production of the ship.
I. Occupational Specificity
Because sailing is far away from home, floating on the sea of Tianshui for several months to nearly a year, the natural environment has changed a lot and the crisis is endless, so the psychological load of seafarers is extremely heavy.
The range of seafarers' activities is narrow, and more than 80% of the year is spent in this small world. Although the duty system requires taking turns to rest, there can be no major environmental changes, and the duty cycle is endless, the schedules are different, and the life rhythm is erratic. Every two days of sailing, the jet lag is more than an hour, the circadian rhythm is constantly changing, the seasons are constantly migrating, and the seaman's biological rhythm is changing frequently, which causes anxiety, boredom and various diseases.
Noise from ships during the day and night. In 1980, the International Oceanic Consultative Organization formulated a standard stipulation that the noise in the cabin during continuous operation far exceeds 90 decibels, and the intermittent operation does not exceed 110 decibels, but the actual situation often exceeds this requirement. The cabin noise far exceeds the textile and forging workshops. The living area on the ship is close to the main engine, generator and auxiliary machine around the clock, and the noise and vibration they generate continue to affect the seafarer, making it a moment of tranquility. Due to the persistent effects of noise, hearing loss and mental fatigue are caused. Low frequency noise can also reduce seafarers' ability to adapt to monotonous work.
The vibration and sway of the hull make the seafarers often in bumps and concussions. The lighter ones have vestibular-vegetative neurological syndromes, while the severe ones have diplopia and blurred consciousness.
Air pollution, extreme heat, and insufficient light will increase the psychological load on seafarers, reduce work efficiency, visual fatigue, mental fatigue, and other adverse reactions. Poor living conditions such as lack of fresh water, lack of fresh vegetables, restlessness and lack of sleep can also affect seafarers' mood and health.
Functions and Roles
Work places, social places and personal areas cannot be separated on the ship and are invariant. Seafarers have few opportunities for role adaptation on board. Take the senior seafarer as an example. He is the leader of the seafarer throughout the ship and on all occasions. In the hierarchy, people expected his role and behavior in accordance with his status, so that he could not get rid of this fan cage. Changes without a role change are not good for mental health. The relationship between superiors and subordinates in fixed work, rigid work schedules, constant living environment and cabins, partnerships that meet every day, etc. have created a kind of pressure.
3. Accidents and Stress Responses
The marine accident rate is quite high. In 1978, the world lost 473 ships, the highest in recent years. When an accident occurs, on the one hand, there are reasons for the seafarer's psychological factors and work status, which in turn threatens the safety of navigation and forms a psychological pressure on the seafarer.
In 1980, a 12,000-ton general cargo ship in China collided with a cargo ship from Japan and South Korea. The other ship sank and we were injured. Within a day after the accident, the incidence increased significantly. On the night of the whole ship, 49 people had insomnia, 1 had insufficient blood supply to the heart, 2 had increased blood pressure, 10 had tachycardia, arrhythmia, 16 had stomach pain, and 8 had diarrhea. Psychosomatic disorders after the accident, although the performance is different, indicate that the stress state strongly affects the mental and physical health of the seafarer.
Between 1979 and 1981, the world's ships sank, caught fire, exploded, collided, hit rocks, and disappeared for unknown reasons on average every day. According to a study by the Dutch Marine Research Institute and the British Coast Guard, about three-quarters of the accidents were caused by human error, and psychological obstacles caused by various reasons were the source of the accident.
4. Major Psychosomatic Disorders
Monotonous work, a single male community, and a monotonous environment cause seafarers' sexual depression, boredom, fatigue, and insecurity; they are unstable, irritable, aggressive, brawling, indifferent, stubborn, withdrawn, dull, All kinds of psychological distress cause bad behaviors and diseases.
Due to sexual depression and nostalgia for the family, coupled with the sexual temptation of some pictures and scenes, some seafarers became masturbated. Some masturbation leads to sexual dysfunction in the life of couples on vacation and affects family harmony, and some contract sexually transmitted diseases.
Alcoholism is a sign of seafarers' depravity. Alcohol damages brain function, and vision, maternal and motor functions are impaired, and accidents due to alcohol abuse account for a considerable proportion. Although alcohol addicts appear contented with euphoria, they lose their sense of responsibility, ignore their own health, and are indifferent to others and their families. Stop drinking and become drowsy, jealous, irritable and rough. Personality changes caused by alcoholism are often related to unfitness for navigation.
Depression is common among seafarers. The main symptoms are depression, depression, conscious mental retardation, occlusion of mind, and loss of work ability; slow movements and reduced activity, often feeling and anxious, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, and weakness similar to those of patients with myocardial infarction. Serious suicidal intention, well-planned and concealed action. "Unexplained" sea jumps among seafarers are mostly pathological. Mania and reactive psychosis also occur from time to time, and symptomatic psychosis mostly manifests as delirium.
Psychosomatic diseases among seafarers are more common in ulcers, cardiovascular diseases and tumors. Digestive diseases account for 15.7% to 30% of the incidence of seafarers, which is higher than that of residents on land. Cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality are higher than those of the same age group on land. In particular, the high morbidity rate of captains, officers and pilots is related to their higher responsibilities than the average seafarer.
V. The most important factors affecting the physical and mental health of seafarers
1. The mood of indifference, negativity, and boredom brought by long-term sailing is very harmful.
2. Interpersonal difficulties. Strict hierarchies and fixed roles, especially speech barriers and cultural differences between seafarers of various nationalities.
3 Environmental insecurity and many harmful factors.
4 As a lifelong seafarer, he is consciously unable to change the situation and adapt to difficulties.
Five essentials of seafarers' certificate of competency
I. Professional education and training
1. Seafarers applying for Class B and C sailors and GMDSS limited operator certificate of competence shall have the professional training time specified by the competent authority for professional training or relevant professional qualifications in maritime schools.
2. To apply for three mate, three tube ship and GMDSS general operator of ships with a gross tonnage of 500 tons or above, they must have at least two years of vocational education in maritime education or technical secondary school education or above in maritime education.
3. The crew members who apply for the first officer, captain, chief engineer, large tube ship, and GMDSS level 1 and 2 wireless electronics in the wireless navigation area must have a higher education in a maritime related field or a college degree or higher in a related field.
Second, to require maritime qualifications
1. After applying for the certificate of qualification for class B and C mechanic sailors, the applicants will need 6 months of maritime internship qualification (Navigation area: unlimited navigation area, near ocean navigation area, coastal navigation area).
2. Those who apply for the certificate of competency of the three mate and three-tube crew should hold the certificate of competence for the sailing crew and watchman on duty in the corresponding shipping area, and actually hold their positions for 12 months (new documents: can).
3. Applicants applying for the certificate of eligibility certificate for the first officer and the second officer shall hold the certificate of competence of the second shipping officer, the second officer of the ship class and the second officer, and have actually held their positions for 12 months.
4. Applicants for the certificate of competency of the master and chief engineer shall hold the certificate of competency of the first officer and chief executive officer of the corresponding shipping area and ship class C for 18 months.
5. Applicants who apply for the expansion of the navigational area test shall have a certificate of fitness for the same level and position of the same ship as the applicant applying for the expansion of the navigational area and have a 6-month qualification for actually holding their position.
6. To apply for a higher tonnage and power examination, the evaluator should hold and apply for a lower tonnage and power than the tonnage, but have the certificate of fitness for the same shipping area and position and actually hold his position for 12 months.
7. At the same time when applying for the expansion of the navigation area and the provision of tonnage and power, they shall hold a certificate of competence for the same position as the requested navigation area, tonnage and power, and actually hold their position for 18 months.
Third, we need professional training
1. Those who report to Class B, Class C, Sailors, and Mechanics must undergo 6 months of professional training from a formal training unit, of which they must undergo professional training in "basic safety" and "proficient in boating" for seafarers.
2. Passenger ship attendants, ship cooks, and electricians are required to undergo a "basic safety" professional training of seafarers for about 10 days. Passenger ship attendants also need to undergo "passenger ship professional training".
3. Captains, pilots, engineers, sailors, and mechanics (tankers, chemicals, liquefied gas carriers) applying for special ships need to undergo "special professional" training.
Fourth, to have an internship at sea
1. The crew members of Class B and C sailors and mechanics are required to conduct a 6-month maritime internship (ocean and coastal) after obtaining the "exam certificate".
2. The crew members who have passed the examinations for the various third mate and three tube rotations need to go to the ship for 12 months as a sailor and mechanic before they can exchange for the certificate of competency.
3. General cargo or passenger ship crews need three months of internship on special ships (tankers, chemical tankers, liquefied gas ships, etc.) after receiving "special professional" training to obtain special ship competency certificates.
Five, safety records
Regardless of the type of crew members, whoever makes mistakes or is responsible for accidents while working at sea, the competent maritime department shall determine whether they can declare various types of competency certificates based on performance and accident conditions.
Five can't apply for certificate of competency
I. Engineers and sailors cannot directly apply for the test of pilots and engineers
According to the "People's Republic of China Maritime Crew Competency Examination, Evaluation and Certification Rules", crew members who have obtained the certificate of competency for sailors and mechanics must apply for the pilot and engineer qualifications, and they must have a vocational school diploma or above, or 2 years of navigation Related professional vocational education.
Second, pilots and engineers holding Class D qualifications are restricted from applying for Class C certificates
According to the "People's Republic of China Maritime Crew Qualification Examination, Evaluation and Certification Regulations" and the requirements of the competent authority, the holders of the Certificate of Competence for Class D must apply for a Certificate of Competence for Category C or above, or Two years of vocational education in nautical disciplines. (Those who have obtained Class D eligibility certificates before August 31, 1998 are not subject to academic qualifications).
III. Pilots and engineers holding inland river and fishing vessel competency certificates apply for category C. Pilots and engineers have said that (those who have obtained inland river and fishing vessel competency certificates before August 31, 1998 are not subject to education limit).
According to the "Rules of the People's Republic of China for Maritime Crew Qualification Examination, Evaluation and Certification" and related documents, the pilots and engineers of inland rivers and fishing vessels must have a vocational secondary school education or above, or two years of relevant vocational education in maritime education. Report the corresponding Class C competency certificate.
Fourth, without special training, internships can not be on special ships
No matter what type of certificate of competency is held, special training is required to serve on a special type of ship, and regular internship is required after passing the qualification to serve on a special ship. Generally requires 3 months of internship.
Five or five years of marine service qualifications less than 12 months
According to the "People's Republic of China Maritime Crew Qualification Examination, Evaluation and Certification Requirements", a person holding a certificate of competency must have not less than 12 months in five years and have a maritime service qualification corresponding to the scope of application contained in the certificate of competency and be safe. A good record is required before a new card can be replaced.
What are the requirements for applying for an ordinary seafarer?
Answer: Ordinary seafarers applying for the examination should generally meet the following conditions: (1) male, no
1. What are the requirements for applying for senior seafarers?
Answer: High school graduation or equivalent to high school culture is required for academic qualifications, and other conditions are the same as ordinary seafarers.
2. How long is the training for senior seafarers? Where is the training place?
Answer: The training time is 2 to 3 years, and obtained a vocational college or technical secondary school degree recognized by the state. Training locations in Dalian, Shanghai, Tianjin,
Training objectives
Cultivate all-round development of moral, intellectual, and physical fitness
Chinese seafarers compete
China Ocean Shipping Group, China Merchants Group, China Communications Construction Group, relevant shipping companies, seafarers, crew service agencies, relevant nautical colleges, rescue and salvage bureau of the Ministry of Transport, Yangtze River Navigation Administration, each directly under the maritime bureau:
In order to promote marine culture, comprehensively improve the comprehensive quality of Chinese seafarers, and promote the construction of the country's "Belt and Road", according to the work arrangements, it was decided to be within the scope of the national shipping enterprises (including seafarer assignment agencies, crew service agencies, the same below) and maritime institutions. Carry out the 4th Chinese Seafarers Skills Competition. The relevant matters are notified in advance as follows:
I. Organizational unit
The contest was held by the Maritime Bureau of the Ministry of Transport [3]
Ocean Shipping (USD)
Near Ocean (USD)
China Coastal (RMB)
Bulk carrier
container
Tanker
Bulk carrier
container
Tanker
C-Bulk
Cube Bulk
captain
7200
7400
8500
6800
7000
8000
Jiangzheng 42000
Jiangzheng 38000
Chief Officer
6800
7000
7400
6400
6500
7200
Jiangzheng 36000
Jiangzheng 33000
Second Officer
3200
3300
3700
3100
3200
3500
Jiangzheng 20000
Jiangzheng 19000
Third Officer
2200
2300
2600
1700
2000
2300
7000
8000
Third Officer of New Certificate
Market reference
4500
5000
Chief engineer
7000
7200
8200
6600
6800
7200
29000
27000
Big tube wheel
6800
7000
7200
6400
6500
6500
28000
25000
Two tube wheels
3200
3300
3700
3000
3100
3500
13000
12000
Three tube wheel
2000
2000
2400
1800
2000
2300
6000
7000
New certificate three tubes
Market reference
4500
4500
Boatswain
950
1050
1200
900
950
1100
5500
5500
Mechanic
950
1050
1200
900
950
1100
5500
5500
sailor
750
800
950
650
700
950
4000
4000
Mechanic
750
800
950
650
700
950
4000
4000
chef
950
1050
1200
850
950
950
4500
4300
carpenter
850
850
1050
800
800
Market reference
Electrician / Electrician [4]
2600
2700
3300
1800
2400
2800
5500
5500

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