What Are Campylobacter Symptoms?
Taxonomic status: Campylobacter is a genus of the family Spirulina. It was once classified under the genus Vibrio. At present, it has been recognized that Campylobacter jejuni is the most important pathogenic factor in human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. People infected with this bacteria mainly show acute enteritis, such as diarrhea, discomfort, fever, abdominal pain and bloody stools. Diarrhea caused by Campylobacter is as common as diarrhea caused by Salmonella and has exceeded diarrhea caused by Shigella. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter jejuni cause human infections in the genus Campylobacter. Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter red-billed gull account for more than 99% of human isolates (Campylobacter jejuni accounts for 90%). Campylobacter infections are usually associated with ingestion of chicken, especially raw or raw chicken. In previous research reports, the isolation rate of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in commercially available chicken products was 23.1% -98%, so chicken is now generally considered to be the main source of Campylobacter jejuni  .
- It was comma-shaped or S-shaped, slightly aerobic, and negative for Gram stain. The size of the fungus is (0.2 0.5) × (1.5 5) microns, and the longer one can have 4-5 bends. With extreme flagella, fast movement and no spore formation. It is easy to grow on blood agar, and the colony has two types: smooth and rough. The G + C molecular content in DNA is 30% to 35%. It has O (bacteria), H (flagellate) and K (capsular) antigens. This genus includes Campylobacter fetus, Campylobacter sputum, and Campylobacter faecalis, and the first two are divided into 2 to 3 subspecies. Campylobacter fetus jejunum is one of the important pathogens that cause acute diarrhea in infants. Some strains can cause abortion in cattle and sheep. Biological characteristics of different species of Campylobacter (see table). Most strains are sensitive to multiple antibiotics, especially gentamicin, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol.
- Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter colon are the two most common species of Campylobacter infections in developing countries, accounting for more than 99%. Infection caused by other species, such as Campylobacter seabird, Campylobactus uppsala, Campylobacter fetus Campylobacter fetus, embryonic subspecies, etc. have also been reported, but the proportion is very small. The Red Cross Hospital of Cape Town, South Africa said that traditional Campylobacter culture methods are not conducive to the growth of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter colon, so the detection rate is limited. More than half of the Campylobacter they isolated with the "Cape Town Method" they developed were species other than Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter colon. It is suggested that other Campylobacter species may be more closely related to human infection than known.
- There is no vaccine to prevent Campylobacter infection. For the prevention of Campylobacter, corresponding measures can only be taken according to its epidemic links and characteristics. Some countries have made relatively successful attempts in this regard. For example: Iceland regularly samples farm-raised poultry, immediately slaughters Campylobacter infections and freezes them to reduce the pollution of the source to the environment; the United States strictly enforces slaughterhouse slaughter Bolivia disinfects the water source with chlorine and strictly monitors the chlorine content in the water to prevent waterborne transmission. In general, there are the following preventive measures for different links: poultry is the most important source of infection, we should pay attention to the hygiene of the feeding farm, take full control from the farm to the table to prevent pollution; do not eat raw or undercooked poultry; HACCP method is used for meat food processing to reduce Campylobacter and other possible pollution; purify water sources, pay special attention to rural water hygiene; do not drink raw milk, milk disinfection can use bus disinfection method or boiling method. Families pay attention to kitchen hygiene to avoid cross-contamination of poultry with other foods. Irradiation can also be used for sterilization, but it cannot completely replace other control measures. In addition, direct contact with livestock and pets should be avoided to reduce the chance of infection. Since most countries have not yet established a complete surveillance system for Campylobacter, existing data on Campylobacter infection and resistance may be just the tip of the iceberg, and the actual situation is much more serious. In order to more fully grasp the epidemiological data of Campylobacter, to more effectively prevent and control Campylobacter epidemics, to establish and improve the national surveillance system for Campylobacter, it is particularly necessary to strengthen technical exchanges and cooperation with developed countries. Monitoring reports and research progress of Campylobacter are published on Pulsenet in the United States and Campynet in Europe, which can be consulted. China's "Food Contamination Monitoring Network" has listed Campylobacter as a monitoring content. On November 25-29, 2002, a training course "WHO Foodborne Diseases and Foodborne Pathogens Resistance Monitoring" organized by WHO and organized by China CDC Nutrition and Food Safety was held in Beijing. WHO experts introduced the knowledge of Campylobacter's international trend, control measures, and standard methods for isolation and identification to students from various provinces and municipal health inspection departments. This will surely lay a good foundation for better monitoring of Campylobacter in China. basis.
- Campylobacter is a zoonotic disease. Wild animals, domestic animals, and pets are important hosts of Campylobacter. Many countries have detected high carrier rates in the intestines of pigs, cattle, sheep, chickens, ducks, and pigeons. Infected animals are usually asymptomatic, but can excrete bacteria to the outside world for a long time, which can cause human infection. In developed countries, eating raw or undercooked poultry is the most common cause of Campylobacter infection. The United States, New Zealand and other places account for 10% -50% of the total cases. Because developing countries have limited sanitary conditions, waterborne transmission is most common. Campylobacter can be isolated from river water, stream water, mountain springs, and well water. Drinking unsterilized milk is also an important cause of infection. In addition, direct contact with infected animals and pets is often the cause of infection in slaughterhouse workers and children. International travel is often one of the risk factors for infection, and it mostly occurs for travelers from developed countries to developing countries. The resulting infections in the United States account for 5% -10% of the total, the United Kingdom 10% -15%, Sweden and Norway 50% -65%. Campylobacter jejuni is also the leading pathogen of diarrhea among U.S. military personnel stationed in Thailand and Egypt. Asymptomatic carriers and recovering patients can also be a source of infection. The average time for patients to recover from bacteria during the recovery period is 8 days, and some can be as long as several weeks. In particular, children who carry bacteria have a high carrier rate and cannot properly handle feces, which can become an important source of infection. Most typical Campylobacter infections are acute, self-limiting enteritis, and are mainly manifested by diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps. Most patients have watery or bloody stools, with diarrhea 8-10 times a day at most. Some patients have less diarrhea, with abdominal pain as the main symptom. Most patients have fever and persist for more than a week. Relief often occurs before fever develops, even without antibiotic treatment. The diagnosis of Campylobacter intestinal enteritis depends on the culture of fecal microorganisms. Some laboratories use PCR to detect Campylobacter antigen in feces, which can also help diagnose Campylobacter infection. Local complications of Campylobacter infections are caused by the direct spread of the bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract, including cholecystitis, pancreatitis, peritonitis, and major gastrointestinal bleeding. The extraintestinal manifestations of Campylobacter infections include encephalitis, endocarditis, arthritis, and osteomyelitis, but they are very rare. Bacteremia and Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) are the most serious complications after Campylobacter infection in immunocompromised persons, young children and the elderly. This is an acute demyelinating disease of the peripheral nervous system, with a low incidence in the population, but with serious consequences. Mainly cause motor nerve dysfunction, which can cause respiratory muscle paralysis and death in severe cases. Its etiology is complicated, and it is mostly related to viral and bacterial infections. Campylobacter jejuni infection is most closely related to 30% -40% of patients who had been infected with Campylobacter jejuni. Professor Li Chunyan, a scholar of the Chinese Academy of Neurology, first discovered, reported, and named a new subtype of GBS, "Acute Motor Axonal Neuropathy (AMAN)", and successfully made a GBS animal model using Campylobacter jejuni. Bacteria are one of the causes of GBS. GBS caused by Campylobacter jejuni infection is often severe and has a poor prognosis. Maintaining water and electrolyte balance is the basic principle of treatment of Campylobacter enteritis. For most patients, the disease is self-limiting and does not require antibiotic treatment. However, in some special cases, such as high fever, bloody stools, prolonged disease (symptoms last more than one week), pregnancy, HIV infection, and other immunocompromised states, antibiotics can be used, but they should be used with caution. Erythromycin and ciprofloxacin are listed as the drugs of choice for Campylobacter infections. Other antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and gentamicin can also be used  .