What Are the Symptoms of a Medial Collateral Ligament Sprain?

The ligament connects the bone to the bone. It is an obvious fibrous tissue, or it is attached to the surface of the bone or fused with the outer layer of the joint capsule to strengthen the stability of the joint to avoid injury. When violent, non-physiological activities occur, and ligaments are stretched beyond their tolerance, injuries occur. Parts of the ligament that do not cause a tendency for joint dislocation are called stings. The ligament itself is completely broken, and the bone at its attachment site can also be torn off, thereby forming a potential joint dislocation, subluxation, or even dislocation.

Basic Information

English name
ligamentous injury
Visiting department
Orthopedics, general surgery
Multiple groups
Sports enthusiast or hard worker
Common causes
Strenuous exercise, external force, etc.
Common symptoms
Small blood vessels rupture and bleed, local pain and swelling
Contagious
no

Causes of Ligament Injury

Strenuous exercise
During strenuous exercise, such as college sports competitions, dances, acrobatics, etc., although ligament damage is prone to occur, even in daily life, accidents such as car accidents and falling at high altitudes can cause similar injuries.
2. External force factors
When there is a non-physiological movement in a certain position, the ligaments that restrict the movement of the knee joint to that position are bound to bear the brunt. When the knee joint is flexed and externally rotated and abducted from the outside, the medial joint capsule ligament and medial collateral ligament are mainly damaged. The severe fashion can involve the anterior cruciate ligament and the medial meniscus. This is the most common injury. the way. The knee joint is in the straight, adducted, and internal rotation positions. When the anterior violence causes overextension, the lateral structure and the posterior cruciate ligament are often injured. In severe cases, the common peroneal nerve can be injured, and sometimes the tibial condyle fracture is associated. Sudden violent backward or forward misalignment of the tibia in the knee flexion position can cause rupture of the posterior cruciate ligament or the anterior cruciate ligament and the medial collateral ligament. Knee ligament injuries are common in football, basketball, skaters, and porters.

Clinical manifestations of ligament injury

After ligament injury, small blood vessels are usually ruptured and bleeding, local pain, swelling, bleeding within the tissue, hematoma, joint swelling, movement disorders, tenderness. Physical examination revealed significant pain in the stretched ligaments. If the rupture is complete, joint stability decreases.

Ligament injury examination

1. X-ray inspection
Note the avulsion fracture caused by the ligament pull, and pay attention to whether the tibial plateau fracture. Stress X-ray examination is valuable for the diagnosis of ligament damage and instability. If the knee joint is taken at 0 ° varus or valgus stress, observe the corresponding changes in the medial or lateral space.
2. Magnetic resonance
Pay attention to the structural integrity shown at all levels, especially the abnormal signals.
3. Arthroscopy
It is helpful to observe cruciate ligament, meniscus injury, deep side collateral ligament and joint capsule ligament injury, osteochondral fracture.
4. Special inspection
(1) Lateral pressure test (separation test) The knee joint is straightened. The examiner holds the injured ankle with one hand, and the big fish in the other palm against the medial or lateral side of the upper knee. Part of the medial collateral ligament is injured. Pain is caused by the injured ligament during abduction; if it is completely broken, there is abnormal abduction activity. Conversely, if the lateral collateral ligament is partially injured, pain is caused by the injured ligament during adduction; if it is completely broken, there is abnormal adduction activity.
(2) An increase in the advancement of the drawer test indicates an anterior cruciate ligament rupture or relaxation, and an increase in the backward movement indicates a cruciate ligament rupture or relaxation. It should be compared with the opposite side.
(3) The positive result of the axial shift test indicates that the anterior cruciate ligament is broken.
(4) Rotation test Passive internal rotation and external rotation of both knees at 90 °, and then check at 45 ° and 0 °. If there is a difference with the contralateral side, it indicates that the medial collateral ligament, anterior and posterior cruciate ligament are damaged, and there may be rotation failure. stable.

Ligament injury treatment

First aid measures
(1) Rest immediately stop exercise, do not let the injured joint bear weight again
(2) Cold icing or other cold compresses can help reduce pain and swelling, because lowering the temperature can reduce blood circulation. Apply cold for 15-20 minutes each time, 3 to 4 times a day.
(3) Compression of the injured area with bandages or other methods can reduce bleeding and congestion. Bandages should be moderately tight, and you can feel pressure without numbing or ischemizing your branches.
(4) Raise the affected limb
2. Ligament repair
Ligament injury should be treated early and comprehensively repaired. If it is not treated in time, repeated sprains in the joint will inevitably cause damage to important structures such as articular cartilage and meniscus, leading to premature aging of the joint and serious development of secondary traumatic arthritis. The key to its treatment is the repair of damaged ligaments. Partial tears can be directly sutured. Complete rupture requires surgery to repair and reconstruct adjacent tendons, fascia and other tissues.

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