What Is a Bronchial Cyst?

Bronchogenic cyst is a kind of cystic mass caused by congenital abnormal development of the respiratory system, also known as bronchial cyst. According to the location of the disease, it is divided into intrapulmonary, mediastinal, and ectopic. Ectopic types are rare and can occur in the neck, brain, dura, and abdominal cavity. When the cyst is small, there can be no clinical manifestations; when the cyst is enlarged or is infected, it can cause compression symptoms or infection symptoms to the surrounding tissues.

Basic Information

nickname
Bronchial cyst
English name
bronchogenic cyst
Visiting department
Thoracic Surgery
Common locations
bronchus
Common causes
The cause of this disease is unknown. May be related to embryo development factors
Common symptoms
Symptoms of infection, wheezing, cough, expectoration, low fever, occasional hemoptysis, chest pain, chest tightness, dyspnea, etc.

Causes of bronchogenic cysts

The cause of this disease is unknown. It may be related to embryonic development factors. During embryonic development, the respiratory epithelium is separated from the tracheobronchial tree, moves from the bronchial development part to other parts, and gradually increases, and the internal mucus cannot be discharged, forming a bronchial tissue as the cyst wall and containing mucus. Cyst.

Clinical manifestations of bronchogenic cysts

When the bronchogenic cyst is small, there can be no clinical manifestations; when the cyst is enlarged or the infection is accompanied, it can cause compression symptoms or infection symptoms to the surrounding tissues.
When a bronchogenic cyst occurs in the lungs, it compresses the bronchi and surrounding lung tissues, causing wheezing and coughing; when co-infection occurs, coughing, sputum, low fever, and occasionally a small amount of hemoptysis. When the cyst is located in the mediastinum, it manifests as chest pain and tightness; when the trachea, esophagus, or blood vessels are compressed, it manifests as dyspnea, cough, swallowing obstruction, and large vessel compression syndrome. Ectopic bronchial cysts may have no clinical symptoms or corresponding symptoms due to cyst enlargement and bleeding from the cyst cavity depending on the location of the occurrence. Rare cysts may drain mucus out of the skin through the sinus when they are located subcutaneously.

Bronchogenic cyst examination

1. X-ray examination
It is round or quasi-circular, with smooth or sharp edges, uniform and dense dense shadows, and gas-liquid level is partially visible. CT and MRI can clearly show the cysts, help to locate the lesion, determine the nature of the lesion, and to determine the source of the bronchus, rely on pathological diagnosis.
2. Histopathology
The cysts are lined with respiratory epithelium and are composed of mucin-filled goblet cells and ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium. The capsule wall can contain smooth muscles, and individual cartilage can be seen.

Diagnosis of bronchogenic cyst

Diagnosis can be made based on medical history, clinical manifestations, and imaging studies, and histopathological examination can confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment of bronchogenic cysts

The only treatment for bronchogenic cysts is surgical resection. When the cyst is removed, the cyst wall must be completely and completely removed to avoid recurrence after surgery.

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