What Is a Hemangiosarcoma?
Hemangiosarcoma, also known as malignant hemangioendothelioma, is a malignant tumor that occurs from vascular endothelial cells or mesenchymal cells that differentiate toward vascular endothelial cells. Tumor cells have the morphological and functional characteristics of normal endothelial cells to a certain extent.
- Also known as
- Malignant hemangioendothelioma
- English name
- Visiting department
- Common locations
- Occurs in the skin, subcutaneous, muscle, and bone tissues, and can also occur in the oral cavity, mediastinum, and retroperitoneum
- Common symptoms
- It is common in the limbs, especially the lower limbs, followed by the trunk, head, and neck. Usually single hair, different sizes, 1 to 4cm in diameter, hard, nodular or plaque, normal skin, occasionally varicose veins or capillary dilatation
Clinical manifestations of angiosarcoma
- Can occur at any age, more common in adults, a few are congenital. Occurs in the skin, subcutaneous, muscle and bone tissues, and can also occur in the oral cavity, mediastinum, and retroperitoneum. It is common in the limbs, especially the lower limbs, followed by the trunk, head, and neck. It is usually single, of varying size, 1 to 4 cm in diameter, hard, nodular or plaque, normal skin, and occasionally varicose veins or telangiectasias. Sometimes it appears benign. The boundaries are clear and the growth is slow. The malignant grow quickly and aggressively, while others form metastases, and the lungs are most susceptible. In some cases, metastases can occur years after the skin tumor has been removed. The pathway may be through the lymphatic vessels or blood flow.
- The diagnosis is mainly determined by histopathological examination. Reticulated fiber staining is of considerable value in the diagnosis of this tumor.
Differential diagnosis of angiosarcoma
- Attention should be paid to the identification of single hemangiomas and Kaposi sarcoma. This disease is different from a single hemangiomas, with greater damage, irregular cell proliferation, and polymorphic nuclei. It is also different from Kaposi's sarcoma, but the latter has more obvious vascular proliferation, endothelial cells protrude into the lumen, and red blood cells almost always overflow. In malignant hemangioendothelial cell tumors, the vascular lumen is relatively prominent. At the same time, when the reticular fibers are stained, it can be seen that the relationship between reticular fibers and tumor cells is completely different and can be distinguished.
- Angiosarcoma metastases, mainly through lymphatic and blood metastases.
- Extensive local resection of the tumor should be performed as much as possible, and those with incomplete local resection can be supplemented with radiotherapy. Despite this, the tumor recurrence rate is still high. About half of the patients have enlarged lymph nodes in the drainage area. Surgery often requires simultaneous lymph node dissection. The rate is low and it is uncertain whether it is effective for chemotherapy.