What is a Sebaceous Cyst?
Sebaceous cysts are commonly called "pink tumors". They are mainly retention cysts formed by the swollen sebaceous cystic epithelium with increasing contents due to obstruction of the sebaceous glands. It is characterized by slowly growing benign lesions. There are white bean dregs-like secretions in the sac. It can occur at any age, but it is more common in young adults and occurs on the head, neck, and back of the chest. Sebaceous gland cysts protrude from the skin surface and generally have no conscious symptoms, such as pain and suppuration when secondary infections occur.
- English name
- sebaceous cyst
- Visiting department
- Multiple groups
- Common locations
- Head, face, back, buttocks
- Common causes
- Sebaceous gland duct opening in the skin is occluded and narrowed
- Common symptoms
- Cysts protrude from the surface of the skin, and patients generally have no symptoms
Causes of sebaceous cysts
- The cause is sebaceous gland duct obstruction, resulting in sebaceous gland excretion obstruction. Sebaceous duct obstruction is mostly caused by dust clogging and bacterial infection.
Clinical manifestations of sebaceous gland cysts
- Sebaceous gland cysts protrude from the surface of the skin, and are more common in areas rich in sebaceous glands, such as the scalp, face, chest, and back, and most grow slowly. In the absence of co-infection, patients are generally asymptomatic. The mass was spherical, single or multiple, ranging in size from a few millimeters to approximately 10 cm in the larger ones. Medium hardness, elastic, higher than the surface of the skin, adhesion to the skin, difficult to push, smooth surface, no undulation, the center of the needle has a large umbilical hole concave opening, blue-black, shaped like a needle acne, squeeze can be A tofu residue or noodle-like content is produced. The contents are sebum and broken sebaceous gland cells, which often have a rancid smell. Sebaceous gland cysts are extremely rare, but they are susceptible to secondary infection. If they are complicated by infection, red, swollen, hot, and painful inflammatory reactions may occur. The cyst can be ruptured and temporarily subsided under external force, but it will form a scar and easily relapse.
Sebaceous gland cyst examination
- Ultrasound examination
- If necessary, ultrasound examination can be performed to understand the nature of the cyst and its relationship with surrounding tissues.
- 2. Histopathological examination
- Biopsy is generally not required before surgery and can be sent for pathological examination after surgery.
- 3. Laboratory inspection
- Those with systemic multiple sebaceous cysts should be examined for metabolic and endocrine functions.
Sebaceous gland cyst diagnosis
- Diagnosis is based on clinical manifestations and related examinations.
Differential diagnosis of sebaceous cysts
- It should be distinguished from dermoid cysts, epidermoid cysts, and subcutaneous lipomas.
- Dermoid cyst
- It is a congenital cyst formed by the dermal base of skin cells that is off-site. It is located under the skin, and does not adhere to the skin, but adheres to the basal tissues. It is often near the midline of the body, and it usually occurs around the orbits and the root of the nose. Occipital and floor of mouth, etc., are hamartomas.
- Epidermoid cyst
- Also known as traumatic epidermal cyst. It is a cyst containing keratin in the dermis. It is usually formed by implanting the epidermis due to trauma (especially a stab wound). The surface of the tumour often has keratinogenesis, which occurs in areas that are susceptible to trauma and compression, such as hands and ankles.
- 3. Subcutaneous lipoma
- Lipomas are flat, lobulated, located under the skin, and with fingers pushed against the local skin along the sides of the tumor, orange peel-like signs may appear.
Sebaceous Gland Cyst Treatment
- The most common radical method is surgical resection under local anesthesia. Sebaceous gland cysts are small body masses that are easy to operate and can be performed in an outpatient setting. It should be removed as completely as possible without residual cyst wall, otherwise it is easy to relapse. Because sebaceous gland cysts mostly occur on the face, cosmetic effects should be considered during surgical resection. Small incisions can be used to remove the face and neck sebaceous gland cysts. The skin is sutured under tension to avoid incision scar growth to achieve aesthetic effects.
- Antibiotics should be used appropriately for infections before surgery and to control inflammation after surgery. Sebaceous cysts with concomitant infection should be surgically removed after infection control. For local infections that cannot be controlled or have abscesses, incision and drainage should be performed.
- CO 2 laser and ion-ion minimally invasive methods are considered to be a good method for treating cysts without co-infection. Because of its simple operation, small incisions, less bleeding, no sutures, scarring, and low recurrence rate, it is especially suitable for facial Treatment of sebaceous gland cysts.
Sebaceous gland cyst prevention
- To prevent sebaceous gland cysts, the following aspects should be noted:
- 1. Keep the facial skin clean, make the sebaceous glands open, and facilitate the excretion of secretions.
- 2. When the facial skin is itchy, do not scratch it arbitrarily, so as not to cause facial skin infection, destroy the sebaceous gland openings, lead to sebaceous gland secretion retention, and promote the formation of sebaceous gland cysts.
- 3. Don't squeeze the facial skin.