What Is Stage 4 Colorectal Cancer?

jiechang-zhichang'ai China is a low-incidence region in the world, but its incidence is increasing in varying degrees in many regions. The disease occurs mostly in middle-aged men and is most common in the 40 to 70 years old, but it is not uncommon to find people under the age of 30 at the end of the 20th century. The incidence of both sexes is about 2: 1. Like other malignant tumors, the cause of the disease is still unclear. It can occur in any part of the colon or rectum, but the most common are the rectum and sigmoid colon. The rest are found in the cecum, ascending colon, descending colon, and transverse colon. Most cancers are adenocarcinomas, and a few are squamous cell carcinomas and mucinous carcinomas. The disease can spread to other tissues and organs through lymph, blood circulation and direct spread. The diagnosis can be confirmed based on clinical manifestations, X-ray barium enema or fiber colonoscopy. The key to treatment is early detection, timely diagnosis and radical surgery. The prognosis of this disease depends on early diagnosis and timely surgical treatment. In general, cancer is limited to the intestinal wall, the prognosis is better, those who infiltrate to the intestine have a worse prognosis, and young


Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer (carcinoma of colon and rectum) is a common malignant tumor in the gastrointestinal tract. Early symptoms are not obvious. As the cancer grows, it shows changes in bowel habits, blood in the stool, diarrhea, diarrhea and constipation, and local abdominal pain. In the later stage, there are systemic symptoms such as anemia and weight loss. Its incidence and mortality are second only to gastric cancer, esophageal cancer and primary liver cancer in malignant tumors of the digestive system.

Colorectal cancer incidence

jiechang-zhichang'ai China is a low-incidence region in the world, but its incidence is increasing in varying degrees in many regions. The disease occurs mostly in middle-aged men and is most common in the 40 to 70 years old, but it is not uncommon to find people under the age of 30 at the end of the 20th century. The incidence of both sexes is about 2: 1. Like other malignant tumors, the cause of the disease is still unclear. It can occur in any part of the colon or rectum, but the most common are the rectum and sigmoid colon. The rest are found in the cecum, ascending colon, descending colon, and transverse colon. Most cancers are adenocarcinomas, and a few are squamous cell carcinomas and mucinous carcinomas. The disease can spread to other tissues and organs through lymph, blood circulation and direct spread. The diagnosis can be confirmed based on clinical manifestations, X-ray barium enema or fiber colonoscopy. The key to treatment is early detection, timely diagnosis and radical surgery. The prognosis of this disease depends on early diagnosis and timely surgical treatment. In general, cancer is limited to the intestinal wall, the prognosis is better, those who infiltrate to the intestine have a worse prognosis, and young
Patients, cancerous tumors with extensive invasion, those with metastases, or those with complications have a poor prognosis.

Causes of colorectal cancer

It is not very clear, but it is known that it may be related to the following precancerous lesions and some factors:
In many clinical practices, it is found that colon polyps can be malignant, of which papillary adenoma is the most susceptible to malignancy, up to 40%; in patients with familial polyposis, the incidence of cancer is higher. Close relationship.
Some chronic ulcerative colitis can be complicated by colon cancer, and the incidence may be 5-10 times higher than that of the normal population. The cause of colon cancer may be related to chronic inflammation of the colonic mucosa. It is generally believed that in the process of hyperplasia of inflammation, canceration occurs through the stage of inflammatory polyps.
In China, cases of schistosomiasis complicated with colon cancer are not uncommon, but their causality is still controversial.
According to statistics from the World Cancer Epidemiological Survey, the incidence of colon cancer is high in North America, Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand and other places, but lower in Japan, Finland, Chile and other places. Studies have suggested that this geographical distribution is related to residents' eating habits, and the incidence of high-fat dieters is higher.
The incidence of colon cancer may be related to genetic factors, which has attracted more and more attention.

Colorectal cancer pathology

The general morphology of colorectal cancer can be divided into three types: polypoid type, narrow type and ulcer type. Different types of cancers have different sites and clinical manifestations.
Polyp-type colorectal cancer occurs in the right half of the colon, such as the cecum and ascending colon. The cancerous body is large, looks like cauliflower, and protrudes to the intestinal cavity. The surface is prone to festering, bleeding, and necrosis.
Narrow-type colorectal cancer occurs in the left colon of the rectum, sigmoid colon, and descending colon. The cancer is small, but the texture is hard. It often infiltrates around the intestinal wall and causes the intestinal lumen to become narrow.
Ulcerative colorectal cancer occurs in the left half of the colon, and the cancerous body is small. In the early stage, a concave ulcer is formed, which easily causes bleeding and penetrates the intestinal wall to invade adjacent organs and tissues.

Clinical manifestations of colorectal cancer

Blood is the main symptom of colon cancer and the first and most common symptom of rectal cancer. Due to the location of the cancer, the amount and characteristics of bleeding vary.
Patients with polyp-type colorectal cancer may have localized abdominal pain and diarrhea in the right lower abdomen. The stool is watery, pus, or jam-like, and the fecal occult blood test is mostly positive. As the cancer grows, you can feel the lump in the corresponding part of the abdomen.
Squamous colorectal cancer can easily cause intestinal obstruction, and abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, or diarrhea alternate with constipation. The stool was purulent or bloody.
Patients with ulcerative colorectal cancer may experience abdominal pain, diarrhea, blood in the stool or pus and blood, and easily cause intestinal narrowing and obstruction. Once complete obstruction occurs, abdominal pain may worsen, and abdominal distension, nausea, and vomiting may occur, and the overall situation may change dramatically .
In the late stages of the tumor: Anemia can be caused by persistent small amounts of blood in the stool; long-term progressive anemia, malnutrition and local ulceration, poisoning symptoms caused by absorption of toxins, causing patients to lose weight, lose their energy, general weakness and cachexia; due to acute perforation Can cause acute peritonitis; hepatomegaly, ascites, lymphadenopathy of the neck and supraclavicular fossa, often suggesting advanced tumors and metastasis.

Colorectal cancer diagnosis

The disease should be diagnosed early. Patients with recent changes in bowel habits or bloody stools should not miss the opportunity to undergo digital rectal examination, X-ray barium enema, sigmoidoscopy or fiber colonoscopy. X-ray barium-air double contrast imaging can show signs of barium filling defects, intestinal stenosis, and mucosal destruction, so as to determine the location and extent of the tumor. Sigmoidoscopy and fiber colonoscopy can directly observe the shape of the whole colon and rectal mucosa. Biopsy can be taken under direct vision for suspicious lesions, which is valuable for improving the accuracy of diagnosis, especially for the early diagnosis of small lesions. Digital rectal examination is the simplest and very important test method for diagnosing rectal cancer.It can not only find the tumor, but also determine the location, size, shape, surgical method and prognosis of the tumor.
This check was done in time and was misdiagnosed as hemorrhoids, enteritis, etc., which caused long delays in treatment. Fecal occult blood test is a simple and easy method of early screening for early diagnosis. Although it is not specific, it treats people who have persistent, repeated occult blood positive and no cause can be found. It is always vigilant for the possibility of colon cancer, especially for the right half. Colon cancer is even more important. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is considered to be related to malignant tumors, but it is not specific to colorectal cancer and can be used as one of the auxiliary diagnostic methods. Since the serum CEA gradually decreases after resection of the tumor, it will increase again when there is recurrence, so Used to determine the prognosis or recurrence of the disease.
Right colon cancer with symptoms such as diarrhea, positive fecal occult blood test, and right abdominal mass should be distinguished from diseases such as intestinal tuberculosis, local colitis, schistosomiasis, and amoebiasis. Left colon cancer with symptoms such as constipation alternation, bloody stool or purulent bloody stool should be distinguished from diseases such as hemorrhoids, dysentery, ulcerative colitis, and colon polyps.

Colorectal Cancer Treatment

Colorectal Cancer Surgical Treatment

Radical treatment of bowel cancer is still the first surgical treatment. The 1st National Conference on Bowel Cancer proposed that radical resection of invasive bowel cancer is defined as tumors that are visible to the naked eye during surgery, including all primary nodes and lymph nodes in the drainage area, which are radical resections. Removal of the lesion, but residual tumor or gross tumor is a palliative operation. Therefore, radical surgery should be performed for patients whose lesions are limited to the primary or regional lymph nodes; local lesions are extensive and it is estimated that it is not easy to completely remove them, but those with no distant metastasis can be treated as palliative resection; With distant metastases, palliative resection can be performed to relieve obstruction and improve symptoms; local lesions are extensive, adhesion, and fixed, and can not be removed. Short cuts or ostomy can be performed to relieve symptoms; distant metastases such as liver metastases Or other visceral metastases, and those who can still resect the primary tumor can consider whether to resect at the same time according to the specific situation of the patient, of course, this is also a palliative operation. Postoperative syndromes: Disorders of bowel movement often occur after surgical resection of straight and colon cancer, and the number of stools is increased; constipation is often caused by the destruction of the coordinated solid transport function of the colon after sigmoid colon resection; Changes in bowel function, such as increased stool frequency and incontinence. Rectal cancer surgery often has dysuria and sexual dysfunction. For patients with non-retained anus, an "artificial anus" placed in the perineum is being researched and designed, and devices capable of controlling bowel movements can be used to solve the problem of defecation of patients. Muscle excitation techniques using muscles in place of the sphincter seem to be promising.

Colorectal Cancer Radiation Therapy

In the past 50 years, despite the rapid development of surgical technology, the surgical cure rate and 5-year survival rate of colorectal cancer have always hovered around 50%. The main reason for treatment failure is the high local recurrence rate. Therefore, it must be considered to improve the treatment effect of colorectal cancer. Comprehensive Treatment. At present, there are many researches and good results in the comprehensive treatment of surgery and radiation, including preoperative radiation, intraoperative radiation, postoperative radiation, "sandwich" radiotherapy, etc. Various different comprehensive treatments have different characteristics. For advanced rectal cancer, especially localized tumor infiltration into nearby tissues (pararectal, prerectal tissue, abdominal lymph nodes, bladder, urethra, pubic branch) and patients with surgical contraindications, the use of palliative radiation is often a more satisfactory effect.

Comprehensive treatment of colorectal cancer with radiotherapy

(1) Preoperative radiation
1) Improve surgical resection rate
2) Reduce lymph node invasion rate and percentage of advanced patients
3) Reduce distant transfers.
4) Reduce local recurrence rate and improve survival rate
(2) Postoperative radiation
1) Reduce the local recurrence rate: the effect will be better in patients with early postoperative radiation.
2) Improve survival rate: The 5-year survival rate of postoperative radiotherapy patients is significantly higher than that of surgery alone.
(3) "Sandwich" radiotherapy
In order to give full play to the advantages of preoperative radiation and postoperative radiation, and to overcome the shortcomings of both, the method of preoperative radiation-surgical-postoperative radiation is called a "sandwich" method.
(4) Intraoperative radiation
In order to increase the irradiation dose of tumor tissue and reduce unnecessary irradiation of normal tissue, in recent years, it has been reported to use intraoperative direct-view radiation therapy.

Colorectal cancer radiotherapy alone

(1) Intracavity radiation
The choice of lesions is appropriate, and the local control rate of early rectal cancer can reach 96%.
(2) Simple external radiation
For patients with locally advanced tumors, inability to undergo surgery for various reasons, and patients with recurrence after surgery, external exposure can relieve symptoms and reduce pain. In some cases, patients who cannot undergo surgery can undergo surgical resection after radiation treatment.
In order to further improve the treatment effect of colorectal cancer, some new treatment methods are being explored, and the clinical application value of new ray neutrons is also being further explored.

Colorectal cancer chemotherapy

(1) Single drug treatment: 5-Fu is now the basis of standard chemotherapy for bowel cancer. The efficacy of 5-Fu is related to the lesion site. In terms of effectiveness, abdominal lesions are 32%, lymph node metastases are 25%, liver metastases are 24%, skin and subcutaneous metastases are 16%, and other sites are 8%. The worst was 6.4%.
(2) Combined chemotherapy: Combined chemotherapy has the advantages of improving efficacy, reducing or not increasing toxicity, reducing or delaying the emergence of drug resistance, and many combined chemotherapy schemes have been used for the treatment of colorectal cancer, which basically include 5-Fu .
(3) Adjuvant chemotherapy: Adjuvant chemotherapy refers to the use of antineoplastic drugs that are active on a certain tumor to assist radical treatment. For colon cancer, it means adjuvant chemotherapy for surgery. Adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer has been studied for a long time, and 5-Fu is the most widely used. 5-Fu + CF has achieved better results than 5-Fu alone. The combination of 5-Fu with MTX, -IFN, and DDP can improve the efficiency or survival rate.

Colorectal cancer immunotherapy

1. Activate immune cells such as phagocytes, natural killer cells, and nociceptive T cells, and induce the secretion of cytokines such as interleukin, interferon-, and tumor necrosis factor-.
2. Inducing apoptosis of cancer cells.
3. Combined with traditional chemotherapeutic drugs (mitomycin, carmustine, etc.), it not only increases the efficacy, but also reduces the toxic and side effects during chemotherapy.
4. Synergistic effect with immunotherapy drugs (interferon-2b).
5. Relieve pain of patients with advanced cancer, increase appetite, and improve patients' quality of life.

TCM Treatment of Colorectal Cancer

When choosing western medicine treatment, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, you can choose appropriate drugs with anti-tumor, enhance immunity, can reduce the side effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy for treatment.
I. American Periplaneta: The epidermis of American Periplaneta contains sclera and chitin, bromine, zinc, nickel, manganese, potassium, calcium, titanium, chlorine, sulfur, silicon, aluminum, magnesium and other elements. Muscle hydrolyzes 13 amino acids. In addition, the body stores microbiotin B1B2, niacin and ascorbic acid, and the lymph contains trehalose, trehalase, glycoprotein, inositol, and protocatechuate glucoside. The whole contains ergothioneine, lobster carnitine, trigonelline, glycine, betaine, analine, trimethylamine, adenine and the like. Periplaneta americana extract has a certain inhibitory effect on tissue growth of various cancers, and can promote tumor cell apoptosis.
Second, toad skin: suitable for all types of cancer, its smell is warm, warm and toxic. Guixin Jing has the effects of detoxification, analgesia, and resuscitation. The Chinese Traditional Medicine Research and Development Association of Chinese Medicine has compiled the "Special Recipes for Cancer" which contains: toad skin smelly, cool, slightly toxic, functional detoxification, diuresis, anti-bloating, and treating various tumors. In 1999, a large number of medical tests were conducted in Shanghai Jiaotong University, especially for the effective content of cancer, liver cirrhosis, pain and other ingredients in the amount of more than 8,000 yuan (where there is an immune function of 8,000 yuan or more). Huaxia Publishing House "Chinese Medicine Encyclopedia" contains: Toad clothing poison is relatively light, mainly used for sore and swelling poison and pediatric accumulation, modern commonly used to treat tumors. Yuanfang Press introduced "Chinese Herbal Medicine", toad clothing can cure cancer, leukemia, lymphoma and so on. However, it has certain side effects, especially gastrointestinal side effects. Long-term use can cause discomfort in the upper abdomen, easily cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, numbness of lips and limbs, palpitations, slow heart rate, and irregular heart rate.
three. Cordyceps sinensis: Cordyceps sinensis is a complex of the germ and larvae of the ergot fungus Cordyceps sinensis on the bat larvae, and there are many types. Cordyceps sinensis is a traditional and valuable nourishing Chinese medicinal material. The main ingredients include Cordyceps, Cordyceps Vitamins, amino acids, sterols, mannitol, alkaloids, vitamins B1, B2, polysaccharides and minerals. With anti-cancer, nourishing, immune regulation, antibacterial, sedative and hypnotic effects. The traditional medicine "Compendium of Materia Medica" states: "It has a sweet and warm nature, is good for vital energy, and is dedicated to replenishing life." Modern medical research has confirmed that its ingredients contain fat, protamine, fibril, cordycepin, cordycepin, and vitamin B12, which are common. It is used for anti-tumor, improve immunity, improve cell capacity, improve heart function, regulate respiratory system, kidney function, improve hematopoiesis, regulate blood lipid, regulate sexual function, etc. Among them, the antitumor effect and the improvement of immune function can be used for the treatment of clinical malignant tumors. It is mainly used for patients with nasal, pharyngeal, lung, leukemia, brain cancer and other malignant tumors.
Fourth, ginsenoside rh2: The source of ginsenoside RH2 is the dried roots of the genus Ginseng plant. It is suitable for patients with early tumors and those with low immunity to prevent tumors. Patients with acute, severe and advanced cancer have weak constitution. Taking it can improve autoimmune function, enhance anti-tumor ability, and reduce toxic and side effects after chemotherapy such as: bone marrow suppression, peripheral blood changes, immune suppression, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, hair loss, etc .; improve Quality of life and extended life.

Colorectal cancer postoperative diet

Rectal cancer postoperative diet:
1. Foods rich in vitamins A, C, E, K, and folic acid, such as fresh vegetables, fruits, animal livers, etc. ;
2, rich in trace elements, such as mushrooms, kelp, laver, egg yolk, pumpkin, Chinese cabbage, animal liver and kidney, ginseng, wolfberry, yam, ganoderma, etc., they contain minerals such as selenium, molybdenum and other anticancer effects
3. Patients with esophageal cancer have poor appetite and difficulty in eating after surgery. Eat more lipids and sweets that are easy to digest and absorb, such as honey, sucrose, vegetable oil, cream, etc .;
4, protein-rich foods: such as lean meat, eggs, beans, milk and supplemented with various essential amino acids, maintaining the balance of amino acids in the body can inhibit the development of cancer.

Colorectal cancer prevention from diet

It is worth mentioning that diet should be paid attention to to prevent colorectal cancer. The medical profession generally believes that those who eat more fat and less fiber diet have a higher chance of developing colorectal cancer. Studies have shown that people in some areas have a diet that is rich in fiber-rich foods such as vegetables and fruits. Bowel cancer patients are lower than people in other areas.
The University of Cambridge has published a large study on diet and cancer, with over 400,000 people surveyed, making it the largest diet and cancer study ever. The results show that a high-fiber diet can effectively reduce the risk of fatal cancer by up to 40%, especially colon and rectal cancer.
In the past, studies in the French medical community also found that 30% of cancer cases are directly related to patients' eating habits. The French Academy of Medical Sciences has pointed out in the "Diet and Cancer" survey report that high-fat foods and saturated fatty acids such as whole milk and meat are not only prone to cause a variety of cancers, especially colon and rectal cancer, but also prone to cardiovascular disease. Experts believe that dietary fiber can stimulate the peristalsis of the intestine, but also shorten the time for food to pass through the intestine, reduce the chance of carcinogens in the feces to contact the intestinal mucosa, and expel stools and toxins as soon as possible.
Dietary fiber comes mainly from natural vegetables, fruits, cereals and beans. Cruciferous vegetables in vegetables are rich in antioxidant vitamin C and carotene, which can inhibit the synthesis of carcinogenic nitrosamines. Such vegetables include broccoli, mustard, cabbage and so on. Most yellow and green fruits and vegetables are rich in flavonoids, and other foods such as onions and apple peels also contain flavonoids. Eating more can also help prevent cancer.

Why colorectal cancer is easily misdiagnosed

According to relevant statistics, the misdiagnosis rate of rectal cancer is 30%, which must be paid great attention by medical staff. There are many reasons for misdiagnosis.
Rectal cancer is most likely to be misdiagnosed as internal hemorrhoidal hemorrhage, polyp hemorrhage, bacterial dysentery, amoebic dysentery, and rectal inflammation. 70% of patients have been treated with enteritis and hemorrhoids before being diagnosed with rectal cancer, and 40% of patients have had These data for surgical treatment of hemorrhoids are amazing.
The high misdiagnosis rate of rectal cancer is mainly due to insufficient vigilance for rectal cancer patients under 30 years of age. It is limited to some test results, or no further examination is performed after detecting "hemorrhoids". Precancerous lesions in the rectum , Such as polyps, ulcers, etc. have not been treated in time, and developed into cancer. In particular, many of these diseases are missed and misdiagnosed because of no digital rectal diagnosis. Digital rectal diagnosis is the most important method for diagnosing rectal cancer. More than 80% of rectal cancers can be touched during digital rectal diagnosis.
Another important reason for misdiagnosis is that young people have blood in the stool, changes in bowel habits, anemia, and poor appetite. Young colorectal cancer is often characterized by high malignancy, rapid disease progression, and obvious regional lymph node metastasis. bad. So once misdiagnosed, it will bring extremely serious consequences to patients.

Colorectal cancer prevention

According to a prospective study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute published on November 1, regular consumption of fruits and vegetables has no preventive effect on colon or rectal cancer.
Dr. Karin B. Michels and colleagues at Harvard Medical School in Boston analyzed data from the Nurses' Health Study (which included 88,764 women) and the medical worker follow-up study (which included 47,325 men). The daily diet of these women was recorded four times between 1980 and 1990, and the daily diet of these men was recorded twice between 1986 and 1990.
As of 1996, there were 937 colon cancers and 244 rectal cancers in the two populations. The researchers found that "in general there was no significant correlation between fruit and vegetable consumption and the incidence of colon or rectal cancer." After adjusting according to age, the relative risks of all groups of different consumption amounts were around 1.0. After adjustment based on factors such as family history of colorectal cancer, body mass index, smoking, alcohol and red meat intake, changes in this assessment were small. Analysis of data on very low fruit and vegetable consumption did not reveal an increased risk of colorectal cancer.
Overall, many different fruits and vegetables, such as citrus fruits and cruciferous vegetables, were not associated with colorectal cancer. Exceptions include dried plums and legumes. The relative risk of colon cancer is 1.46 to 1.73 for those who consume dried prunes daily. The relative risk of colon cancer is 1.49 for women who consume legumes daily, and 0.90 for men. The hazards were 1.46 and 1.55.
Dr. Michels and others concluded that "the overall preventive effect of fruits and vegetables on colorectal cancer may be overstated." They believe that the factors that lead to this exaggeration may include bias in recall and subject selection. However, they added that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is still very beneficial because it prevents cardiovascular disease and may prevent other cancers.
In a related review article, Andrew Flood and Dr. Arthur Schatzkin of the National Institutes of Health gave different interpretations of previous studies, stating: "While the research by Dr. Michels et al. On fruits and vegetables and lower colorectal cancer The danger-related hypothesis is questioned, but the hypothesis still has some vitality and is worthy of further study. "

Colorectal Cancer Others

Colorectal cancer is cancer caused by abnormal growth of cells in the colon or rectum. Cancer cells that originate in the colon are called colon cancer, and those that originate in the rectum are called rectal cancer. If both organs are affected, they are called colorectal cancer. It is currently a globally visible digestive system cancer, and its incidence has been increasing in recent years.
Colorectal cancer can develop at any age, but most patients are over 40 years of age. Colorectal cancer is also one of the most preventable tumors. It usually originates from non-cancerous neoplastic "polyps" of the colon or rectal epithelium. If it is screened, detected and removed early, it can stop it from turning into a tumor. The medical profession believes that if detected early, bowel cancer is the most easily curable cancer.

Causes and symptoms of colorectal cancer

The occurrence of colorectal cancer is related to genes, diet, family history, smoking, drinking and other factors. Modern people's diet has many delicate diets that are lean to low fiber and high fat, which makes colorectal cancer one of the main causes of death in humans.

Colorectal cancer diet prevention

It is worth mentioning that diet should be paid attention to to prevent colorectal cancer. The medical profession generally believes that those who eat more fat and less fiber diet have a higher chance of developing colorectal cancer. Studies have shown that people in some areas have a diet that is rich in fiber-rich foods such as vegetables and fruits. Bowel cancer patients are lower than people in other areas.

Colorectal cancer dietary fiber food

The University of Cambridge has published a large study on diet and cancer, with over 400,000 people surveyed, making it the largest diet and cancer study ever. The results show that a high-fiber diet can effectively reduce the risk of fatal cancer by up to 40%, especially colon and rectal cancer.
In the past, studies in the French medical community also found that 30% of cancer cases are directly related to patients' eating habits. The French Academy of Medical Sciences has pointed out in the "Diet and Cancer" survey report that high-fat foods and saturated fatty acids such as whole milk and meat are not only prone to cause a variety of cancers, especially colon and rectal cancer, but also prone to cardiovascular disease.
Experts believe that dietary fiber can stimulate the peristalsis of the intestine, but also shorten the time for food to pass through the intestine, reduce the chance of carcinogens in the feces to contact the intestinal mucosa, and expel stools and toxins as soon as possible.

Colorectal cancer smoking can cause colorectal cancer

Smoking is a possible risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, no studies have evaluated the long-term risk of female smokers. In the study, US researchers evaluated the relationship between smoking and the risk of CRC in all and different anatomic locations in postmenopausal women.
The research team randomly selected 41,836 women aged 55 to 69 to collect their data. They identified smoking and other CRC risk factors at baseline (1986). The researchers then identified 869 patients with CRC onset and 249 deaths before 1999, and calculated the risk of CRC using a Cox proportional hazard regression model.
Researchers found that women who smoked had a slightly higher risk of developing and dying of CRC compared to women who never smoked (RRs were 1.17 and 1.31, respectively). The risk of CRC continued to increase with the extension of the induction period, with a 30% increase in risk after age 45 (RR: 1.30). According to the analysis of the anatomical site, it was found that the correlation between the amount of smoking and the induction period and the occurrence of proximal CRC was stronger than that of distal CRC.
"The long-term cohort study of postmenopausal women suggests that smoking is positively correlated with the risk of CRC. A longer smoking history can lead to an increased risk, especially the risk of proximal CRC," said Dr. Paul Limburg, head of the study.
He also noted that "these data confirm that, at least in women, smoking may have a site-specific effect on colorectal cancer. Based on these data, we propose an exogenous pathway for smoking to induce CRC."

Colorectal cancer eat more broccoli can prevent colon cancer

Colon cancer is a common and severely harmful gastrointestinal cancer, and is one of the malignant tumors of the digestive system. The morbidity and mortality of colon cancer have been rising steadily, but many people are aware of colon cancer foreign bodies. Most of the patients with colon cancer have reached the middle and advanced stages at the time of consultation and missed the best treatment time. Therefore, prevention of colon cancer is essential. According to related research, eating more broccoli can prevent colon cancer.
Prevent colon cancer and eat more broccoli
The vegetables in the cruciferous family are rich in multivitamins. For example, broccoli contains more vitamin C than oranges, and it also has a lot of minerals and dietary fiber. In addition, various powerful antioxidants in cruciferous vegetables can help us eliminate pollution and speed up our detoxification process.
They also contain natural chemicals called thioglycosides that can eliminate a variety of toxins, including carcinogens. One study showed that eating cruciferous vegetables three times a week reduced the risk of colon cancer by 60%. Therefore, to strengthen the disease resistance and improve the body's detoxification ability, eat "ten cauliflower" at least three times a week.
Some people think that cruciferous vegetables, which are rich in plant fiber, are difficult to digest, so they are "kept out of the table". In fact, as long as you master the cooking method, these vegetables are easily digested by the stomach. The best processing method is tender frying, such as steaming for a short time, fast stir frying or steaming frying. Preserving the nutrients in vegetables, it also helps the fiber to break down and make it easier to digest. When steaming and frying, add a small amount of oil to the pan, stir fry the vegetables for one minute, then add water or a mixture of water, soy sauce and lemon juice, cover, and steam for about 3 minutes.
Further reading: Broccoli can prevent cancer
Broccoli is a biennial herb that is native to the eastern coast of the Mediterranean. There is a small amount of cultivation in China, which is mainly used for western food. Broccoli is rich in nutrients, containing protein, sugar, fat, vitamins and carotene. Its nutritional content ranks first among similar vegetables and is known as the "vegetable crown".
Broccoli may have the most significant anti-cancer and anti-cancer effect. Cauliflower contains more vitamin C, which is higher than that of Chinese cabbage, tomato, and celery, especially in the prevention and treatment of gastric cancer and breast cancer. Studies have shown that the level of selenium in human serum decreases significantly when suffering from gastric cancer, and the concentration of vitamin C in gastric juice is significantly lower than that of normal people. Cauliflower not only can supplement people with a certain amount of selenium and vitamin C, but also can supply abundant carotene It can prevent the formation of precancerous cells and inhibit the growth of cancer. According to research by American nutritionists, cauliflower also has a variety of indole derivatives. This compound has the effect of reducing estrogen levels in the human body and can prevent the occurrence of breast cancer. In addition, research shows that an enzyme extracted from cauliflower can prevent cancer. This substance, called radish, has the effect of increasing the activity of carcinogen detoxifying enzymes.
In addition to anti-cancer, broccoli is also rich in ascorbic acid, which can enhance the detoxification ability of the liver and improve the body's immunity. A certain amount of flavonoids can regulate and prevent hypertension and heart disease. At the same time, broccoli is a high-fiber vegetable, which can effectively reduce the absorption of glucose from the stomach and intestines, thereby lowering blood sugar and effectively controlling the condition of diabetes. [1]

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