What Are Global Emissions?

Automobile emission standards refer to the regulations on the content of harmful gases such as CO (carbon monoxide), HC + NOx (hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides), and PM (particulates, soot) emitted from automobile exhaust. From January 1, 2004, Beijing will change the exhaust emission standards for motor vehicles from the current European I to European II, and in 2008, it will officially implement the European III standard.

Automotive emission standards

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In order to curb the generation of these harmful gases and urge car manufacturers to improve their products to reduce the sources of these harmful gases, both Europe and the United States have established relevant automobile emission standards. Among them, the European standard is a car emission standard that China draws on. New domestic cars will indicate the European standards for engine exhaust emissions.
European standards are implemented by the European Economic Commission (ECE) emission regulations and the European Community (EEC) emission directives, which is the European Union (EU). Emission regulations are voluntarily recognized by ECE participating countries, and emission directives are enforced by EEC or EU participating countries. European regulations (directives) standards for automobile emissions were implemented before 1992. Europe has implemented Euro (Europe Type I emission certification limits) since 1992, and Euro (Euro Type II certification and production) since 1996. Consistent Emission Limits), Euro III (Euro III Type Approval and Production Consistent Emission Limits) has been implemented since 2000, and Euro IV (Euro IV Type Approval and Production Consistent Emission Limits) has been implemented since 2005.
The national standard of automobiles is not the same as the European standard. The national standard is a national standard based on China's specific conditions. The European standard is a standard commonly used by members of the European Community. The European standard is slightly higher than the national standard.
Compared with advanced foreign countries, China s automobile exhaust emission regulations start late and have a low level. According to China s actual situation, specific measures have been adopted in the early 1980s, which are easy to implement and then difficult to implement in stages. Divided into three stages. [1]
Automobile exhaust
In the crowded streets, a stream of light blue smoke squirted from the exhaust pipe at the rear of every motor vehicle. This is what we call car exhaust. In the case of not many vehicles, the self-cleaning ability of the atmosphere can still resolve the toxins emitted by cars. But with the sharp increase in the number of cars, traffic congestion has become commonplace, and the exhaust of cars caused by too many vehicles is even more harmful.
The exhaust gas contains 150 to 200 different compounds. Since the emissions of automobile exhaust gas are mainly between 0.3 meters and 2 meters, which is exactly the breathing range of the human body, the health damage to the human body is very serious. Hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and solid suspended particulate matter. Let's analyze it specifically:
Solid suspended particles: The composition of solid suspended particles is very complex and has strong adsorption capacity, which can adsorb various metal dusts, strong carcinogens benzopyrene and pathogenic microorganisms. The solid suspended particles enter the lungs of the human body with breathing, and stay in different parts of the respiratory tract by collision, diffusion, and deposition, causing respiratory diseases. When suspended particles accumulate to a critical concentration, they trigger the formation of a malignant tumor. In addition, suspended particles can directly contact the skin and eyes, block the skin's hair follicles and sweat glands, cause dermatitis and ocular conjunctivitis, and even cause corneal damage.
Carbon monoxide: Carbon monoxide binds hemoglobin in the blood 250 times faster than oxygen. Carbon monoxide enters the blood circulation through the respiratory tract and forms oxyhemoglobin after affinity with hemoglobin, which weakens the blood's function of transporting oxygen to various tissues, harms the central nervous system, and causes people's sensory, response, understanding, memory and other functional disorders. The blood circulation system is life-threatening.
Nitrogen oxides: Nitrogen oxides mainly refer to nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, which are harmful gases to the human body, especially harmful to the respiratory system. Exposure to air with a nitrogen dioxide concentration of 9.4 mg / m3 for 10 minutes can cause respiratory dysfunction.
Hydrocarbons: It is unclear what the direct harm to human health is. However, when the nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons are affected by the ultraviolet rays of the sun, they will produce a kind of irritating light blue smoke, which contains ozone, aldehydes, nitrates and other complex compounds. The most prominent harm to the human body is irritation of the eyes and upper respiratory tract mucosa, causing eye swelling and sore throat.
According to calculations by the World Resources Institute and China's General Environmental Inspection Station, China has 7 of the 10 most polluted cities in the world. Therefore, the Chinese government attaches great importance to the treatment of urban environmental pollution caused by automobile exhaust emissions. The national environmental protection departments and automobile enterprises are currently accelerating the compliance of National III and National VI standards, and it is already the environmental protection departments and automobile manufacturers to control the emission of automobile exhaust pollution. It is an urgent and urgent responsibility for all sectors of society.


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