What Are the Different Types of Pallet Handling?

A pallet is a medium that transforms static goods into dynamic goods, a loading platform, and a movable platform, or movable ground. Even if the goods that have lost their flexibility on the ground, once they are loaded on the pallet, they immediately gain mobility and become flexible mobile goods, because the goods on the pallet are at any time ready to be turned into movement. This dynamic loading and unloading method, which uses a pallet as a basic tool, is called pallet operation.

Chinese national standard "logistics term" defines a pallet as: a horizontal platform device used for container loading, stacking, handling, and transportation to place goods and products as a unit load. As a kind of container equipment similar to containers, pallets are now widely used in the fields of production, transportation, warehousing and distribution, and are considered to be the 20th century
(1) Flat tray.
In September 2002, the Pallet Committee of the China Federation of Logistics and Purchasing provided more than 300 production, transportation, warehousing and logistics services to four major cities: Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Guangzhou.
The correct use of the pallet should be to pack the goods with the combination code on the pallet and add appropriate strapping and wrapping to facilitate mechanical loading and unloading and transportation, so as to meet the requirements of loading, unloading, transportation and storage.
Load quality
The weight of each pallet should be less than or equal to 2 tons. In order to ensure the safety during transportation, the height of the center of gravity of the loaded goods should not exceed two thirds of the width of the pallet.
Code way
According to the type of the goods, the quality of the goods carried on the pallet and the size of the pallet, the way in which the goods are stacked on the pallet is reasonably determined. The utilization rate of the bearing surface area of the pallet should generally not be less than 80%. There are the following requirements for palletizing cargo:
1.Rigid materials such as wooden, paper and metal containers
Pallets have a direct relationship with stored shelves, products being transported, containers, transport vehicles, unloading platforms, and handling facilities. Therefore, the size of pallets is the basis for considering the specifications of other logistics equipment. For example, the most common beam width dimensions of pallet beam shelves are 2300mm and 2700mm. The former accommodates two 1200mm × 1000mm pallets, and the latter accommodates three 1200mm × 800mm pallets. Here, it is particularly worth mentioning that in order to establish an effective public pallet system, uniform pallets must be used. The standardization of pallets is the prerequisite for consistent pallet operations. The following factors should be considered when selecting a tray size:
1. To consider the size of transportation vehicles and equipment
The proper pallet size should be consistent with the size of the transportation vehicle. It can make full use of the space of the transportation vehicle, improve the loading rate and reduce the transportation cost, especially considering the size of the shipping container and the commercial vehicle.
2. To consider the packaging specifications of the pallet load
Select a suitable pallet according to the packaging specifications of the cargo loaded on the pallet, maximize the use of the surface area of the pallet, and control the height of the center of gravity of the cargo. The reasonable index of the cargo carried on the pallet is to reach 80% of the surface area utilization of the pallet, and the height of the center of gravity of the cargo should not exceed two-thirds of the width of the pallet.
3. Consider the versatility of pallet size
The international standard pallet specifications should be selected as far as possible to facilitate the exchange and use of pallets.
4. Consider the use area of the tray size
The direction of pallet flow for loading directly affects the selection of pallet size. Usually, the goods destined for Europe should choose 1210 pallets (1200mm × 1000mm) or 1208 pallets (1200mm × 800mm); the goods destined for Japan and South Korea should choose 1111 pallets (1100mm × 1100mm); the goods destined for Oceania should choose 1140mm × 1140mm or 1067mm × 1067mm pallets; 48-inch × 40-inch pallets should be selected for goods destined for the United States, and 1210 pallets are usually sent to the United States.
1200mm × 1000mm pallets are the most widely used in the world, and are also the most widely used in China. [1]
1. Static load
The static load refers to the maximum load weight that the pallet can bear when it is placed on a horizontal and rigid plane, and the goods are evenly spread on the pallet.
2. Dynamic load
The dynamic load refers to the maximum load that the pallet can be placed evenly on the floor during the dynamic operation of the pallet when using a forklift or other handling equipment.
3. Racked capacity
Refers to the maximum load that the pallet can bear when the pallet is placed on the beam shelf or other similar racks across the beam.
Therefore, it is necessary to understand the use function of the pallet when selecting the load capacity of the pallet. When the pallet is to be stored in the shelf, the load on the shelf is the most important. At the same time, the load capacity of the pallet has a lot to do with the way the goods are placed on the pallet. The load area is reduced, and the actual remaining load on the pallet will also be reduced, instead of the original rated load.
In the concept of load, the dynamic load and the rack load may not be clearly separated. In the European Pallet Standard (EPAL), the loading load and the dynamic load during forklift operation are combined into the same load. [1]
Standardize China's pallet standardization as soon as possible
The tray is
(1) The method of use is backward and cannot be fully utilized
Intermodal pallets
All projects GB / T 4996-1996 (ISO 8611)
Pallet size, shear test (not done on one side), edge impact test of top deck, pad impact test (not done on longitudinal beam), corner drop test, stacking test, bending test, bottom deck test (not done on one side) ), Wing tray test, environmental treatment
Steel tray
All projects GB / T 10486-1989
Bending test, drop test, compression test of corners (longitudinal beams), impact test of slabs (repeated 6 times at each of 3 points)
Plastic tray
All projects GB / T 15234-1994
Pallet appearance, stacking test, flexural strength test, lower deck strength test, corner drop test, uniform load strength test, environmental treatment
WPC tray
All projects BB / T 0020 -2001
Pallet appearance, pallet size, shear test, top impact test, pad impact test, corner drop, stacking test, flexural test, bottom deck test, uniform load test, material water absorption test, environmental treatment
Disposable tray
All projects GB / T 20077-2006
Paper-based flat tray
All projects GB / T 19450-2004
Single test
1 Environmental treatment
40 , 62 , 24h
GB / T 4995-1996
25 , 63 , 24h *
25 , 65 , RH90% 65%, 48 h
20 , 65 , water treatment for 24 h
-18 , 4h
BB / T 0020-2001
55 , 48h
23 , water treatment for 48 h
2
23 ± 2 , RH45% 55%, 48h
GB / T 15234-1994
3
Tray size
GB / T 4996 --1996 BB / T 0020-2001
4
Tray appearance
GB / T 15234-1994 BB / T 0020-2001
5
Stacking test
GB / T4996--1996 GB / T15234--1994 BB / T0020-2001
6
Bottom slab test (do not do on one side)
GB / T 4996--1996 GB / T 15234--1994 BB / T0020-2001
7
Uniform load test
Normal temperature, single side, 48h
GB / T 15234 --1994 BB / T 0020-2001
high temperature
BB / T 0020-2001
8
Wing tray test
GB / T 4996-1996
9
Shear test (not done on one side)
GB / T 4996--1996 BB / T 0020-2001
10
Impact test of roof panel
GB / T 4996-1996
11
Pad impact test
GB / T 4996--1996 BB / T 0020-2001
12
Corner drop test
Normal temperature
GB / T 4996--1996 BB / T 0020--2001 GB / T 15234-1994
Low temperature
GB / T 4996--1996 BB / T 0020-2001
13
Drop test
GB / T 4857.3
14
Bending test
GB / T 10486-1989
15
Corner (stringer) compression test
GB / T 10486-1989
16
Shock resistance test
GB / T 10486-1989
17
Material water absorption test
GB / T 1934.1-1991
Wooden pallets
(1) Material of wooden pallet:
The performance and characteristics of wooden pallets come from the wood itself, and the material is the decisive factor in determining the application and price of wooden pallets.
At present, domestic enterprises mainly use plastic injection molding and hollow blow molding to produce plastic trays.
Low-pressure high-density polyethylene (HDPE) is generally used as the raw material for injection-molded trays. Its raw material cost is lower than that of blow-molded trays, and it is currently widely used in China. Injection molding is suitable for pallets with complex shapes and high rigidity requirements, and is suitable for pallet production with large production batches. However, the mold cost is high and the investment is large. Very few flashes and minimal post-processing workload. The molding cycle is short, generally one cycle is about 3 minutes. The product size is accurate and the surface quality is good.
The main parameters considered in the injection molding tray manufacturing process are: 1. clamping force; 2. injection volume; 3. injection pressure; 4. plasticizing ability and plasticizing time; 5. cycle time; 6. mold: in order to reduce molding Mold clamping force and product quality should be improved by using hot runner mold. [1]
Plastic pallets are the most basic container units for production, warehousing and other links in various industries. With the increasing demand for domestic plastic pallets and the popularity of various industries,
Plastic tray (8 photos)
As a result, the quality of plastic pallets is increasingly valued by buyers.
Precautions for purchasing plastic pallets
1. Choose single-sided plastic tray or double-sided plastic tray?
For this problem, we must first consider the forklift that we use. If you use a manual hydraulic forklift (commonly known as a "land cow") or a combination of a manual hydraulic forklift and a mechanical forklift, then you do not need to consider double-sided pallet This is because manual hydraulic forklifts cannot be used with double-sided plastic pallets. If you are using both mechanical and electric forklifts in your environment, both single-sided and double-sided pallets are available.
2. The purchase of plastic trays cannot be blindly compared with the price and product weight!
Because plastic trays are generally blue, this greatly facilitates the use of recycled plastic by many plastic tray manufacturers, which disrupts market order on the one hand and also causes losses to users on the other. Some users also compare the weight of the products and use the weight of the product as a standard to measure the price of various plastic pallet products. In fact, this approach has long been perceived by sensitive manufacturers, and they are using consumers This kind of psychology, adding a part of calcium carbonate and other heavy substances to the product, not only reduces their production costs, but also greatly increases the weight of the product itself, but consumers are left in the dark.
3. How to understand the so-called "only high and not low" for the purchase of plastic trays
For example, when the actual load is 0.8 tons of dynamic load, then at least 1 ton of plastic pallets should be selected when purchasing, because the aging of the pallets and the brutal operation of workers must be considered. This effectively increases the service life of the pallet and also saves costs.
4, the choice of plastic tray manufacturers!
Nowadays, there are more and more plastic pallet factories. Many plastic pallet companies are now trying to fill up fish in muddy water. The purchasers should choose the older plastic pallet manufacturers when buying. First of all, they have developed technology and The experience will be rich, and the product quality will be trusted. In addition, after the quality problem occurs, the after-sales is also very in place. [4]

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