What Is a Diesel Forklift?

Forklifts are industrial handling vehicles, which refer to various wheeled handling vehicles for loading, unloading, stacking, and short-distance transportation of palletized goods. The International Organization for Standardization ISO / TC110 is called an industrial vehicle. Commonly used for the transportation of large items in storage, usually using a fuel engine or a battery.

1. Rated lifting capacity: The rated lifting capacity of the forklift refers to the maximum weight of the cargo that can be lifted when the distance from the center of gravity of the cargo to the front wall of the fork is not greater than the center distance of the load. When the center of gravity of the load on the fork exceeds the specified load center distance, due to the limitation of the longitudinal stability of the forklift, the lifting weight should be reduced accordingly.
2. Load center distance: When the standard cargo is placed on the fork, the horizontal distance T from the center of gravity to the front wall of the vertical section of the fork is expressed in mm (mm). For 1T to 4T forklifts, the specified load center distance is 500mm.
3. Maximum lifting height: The maximum lifting height refers to the vertical distance between the upper surface of the horizontal section of the fork and the horizontal ground on the forklift when the forklift is fully loaded on the flat and solid ground and the goods are raised to the highest position.
4. Mast inclination: Mast inclination refers to the maximum inclination of an unloaded forklift on a flat and solid ground, with the mast forward or backward relative to its vertical position. The role of the forward tilt angle is to facilitate the fork picking and unloading of the cargo; the role of the backward tilt angle is to prevent the cargo from falling off the fork when the forklift is running with the cargo. Generally, the forward tilt angle of a forklift is 3 ° ~ 6 °, and the backward tilt angle is 10 ° ~ 12 °.
5. Maximum lifting speed: The maximum lifting speed of a forklift usually refers to the maximum speed of cargo lifting when the forklift is fully loaded, expressed in m / min (m / min). Increasing the maximum lifting speed can improve the operating efficiency, but the lifting speed is too fast, which is prone to cargo damage and machine damage accidents. The maximum lifting speed of domestic forklifts has been increased to 20m / min.
6. Maximum driving speed: Increasing the driving speed has a great impact on improving the operating efficiency of the forklift. For an internal combustion forklift with a lifting capacity of 1T, the minimum travel speed at full load is not less than 17m / min.
7. Minimum turning radius: The minimum distance between the outermost and innermost sides of the car body and the turning center when the forklift is driving at low speed without load and turning with the steering wheel is called the minimum outside turning radius Rmin and the inside turning radius rmin . The smaller the minimum outside turning radius, the smaller the ground area required for the forklift to turn, and the better its maneuverability.
8. Minimum ground clearance: The minimum ground clearance refers to the distance from the wheel to the lowest point fixed on the vehicle body to the ground. It indicates the forklift's ability to pass the raised obstacle on the ground without collision. The greater the minimum ground clearance, the higher the forklift's passability.
9. Wheelbase and wheelbase: Forklift wheelbase refers to the horizontal distance of the centerline of the front and rear axles of the forklift. Tread is the distance between the centres of the left and right wheels on the same axis. Increasing the wheelbase is beneficial to the longitudinal stability of the forklift, but it increases the length of the vehicle body and the minimum turning radius. Increasing the wheelbase is beneficial to the lateral stability of the forklift, but it will increase the total body width and the minimum turning radius.
10. Minimum width of right-angled aisle: The minimum width of right-angled aisle refers to the minimum width of aisle that intersects at right angles. Expressed in mm. Generally, the smaller the minimum width of the right angle channel, the better the performance.
11. Minimum width of stacking channel: The minimum width of stacking channel is the minimum width of the channel during normal operation of the forklift.
Industrial handling vehicles are widely used in ports, stations, airports, freight yards, factory workshops, warehouses, distribution centers, and distribution centers. Pallet cargo loading and unloading and handling operations are performed in cabins, carriages, and containers. It is a must in pallet transportation and container transportation. Essential equipment.
Forklifts play a very important role in the company's logistics system and are the main force in material handling equipment. Widely used in various sectors of the national economy such as stations, ports, airports, factories, warehouses. Forklifts developed during World War II. China has been manufacturing forklifts since the early 1950s. Especially with the rapid development of the Chinese economy, the material handling of most companies has been separated from the original manual handling, and replaced by mechanized handling based on forklifts. Therefore, in the past few years, the demand of China's forklift market has increased at a double-digit rate every year.
There are many brands of forklifts available on the market, the models are complex, and the product itself is highly technical and very professional. Therefore, the choice of models and suppliers is often a problem faced by many purchasing companies. This article focuses on model selection, brand selection, performance evaluation criteria, and the contribution rate of China's forklift overseas market.
1. Rated lifting capacity: refers to the maximum weight that the forklift can lift when the center of gravity of the load on the fork is at the specified load center distance. (Unit kg)
2. Load center distance: the specified distance from the center of gravity of the cargo to the front face of the vertical section of the fork.
National regulations: 400mm for Q (representing load) <1t; 500mm for 1 Q <5;
600 mm at 5 Q 10; 900 mm at 12 Q 18; 1250 mm at 20 Q 42.
3. Maximum lifting height: refers to the maximum height that the fork can lift when the forklift is located on a horizontal solid ground, the mast is placed vertically and it bears the rated lifting load --- the vertical distance from the upper surface of the fork to the ground.
4. Free lifting height: refers to the maximum height that the fork can lift off the ground without changing the height of the mast.
5. Minimum turning radius: refers to the distance between the instantaneous center of the forklift when the steering wheel of the forklift is turned to the extreme position and the turning movement is performed at the lowest stable speed.
6. Mast angle: refers to the maximum angle that an unloaded forklift mast can tilt forward or backward from its vertical position.
7. Wheelbase: vertical distance from the center of the front axle to the center of the rear axle [1]
Forklifts can generally be divided into three categories:
The choice of models and configurations generally starts from the following aspects:
First determine a few brands as the scope of consideration, and then comprehensively evaluate. In the primary election stage, the following aspects are generally used as the criteria for primary election:
1. Product quality and reputation of the brand;
2. What is the brand's after-sales protection capabilities, and whether there are service outlets in or near the company's location;
3. The product quality and service of the brand that the company has used;
4. The selected brand needs to be consistent with the positioning of the company.
After the preliminary selection, the comprehensive evaluation of each brand includes the brand, product quality, price, and service capabilities.
Many companies have certain misunderstandings when choosing a brand: if they are all imported brand forklifts, the quality is similar, and the price should be close. In fact, this is a common-sense mistake. Just like cars, there are many imported brands of cars. The price gap between different brands is also very large, and of course there are differences in performance.
In addition, a forklift is an industrial equipment. It is one of the company's goals to maximize the normal operation of the equipment, and stoppage means loss. Therefore, it is important to choose a brand with guaranteed after-sales service. China's forklift market is very large, so it attracts a lot of foreign brand forklift suppliers, but China has a vast territory. If you want to build a national professional service network, it will be difficult to achieve without a certain period of time.
Benefits of forklift rental:
1. All after-sales services are provided by the service provider during the lease period.
2. Effectively reduce investment in fixed assets.
3. Invest in batches of funds to effectively reduce investment costs.
4. Increase the liquidity of corporate funds.
5. Funds are used as operating expenses to save related taxes.
6. Avoid the risk of technology obsolescence.
1. Advantages of leasing
Invest in batches of funds to effectively reduce investment costs and effectively reduce investment in fixed assets. Reduce staffing to reduce management costs, and leave cumbersome tasks to others. The overall project outsourcing saves management troubles. When the seasonal, staged or short-term production is large and the forklift needs to be increased, it is not necessary to use funds for temporary demand.
2. Lease form
  1. Short-term rental: charged according to the actual operation of the forklift. Both parties determine the charging standards and terms of service.
  2. Long-term lease: The monthly settlement unit is the lease. We only provide maintenance for forklifts and forklifts, and the rest is the responsibility of the lessee.
  3. Contract business system: We provide forklift, driver, fuel, forklift repair and maintenance. Settles in months. No need to search for suppliers and negotiate prices multiple times.
  4. Project contracting: general contracting for storage and logistics projects. We provide project leaders, forklifts, drivers, fuel oil, porters, etc. to achieve lean management of the enterprise.
  5. Purchasing by rent: The forklift truck brand and model are specified by the truck owner and purchased by our company, and then leased to the truck owner. The two parties agree on the rent, lease period, maintenance and other related matters. After the lease period expires, the ownership of the forklift truck Belongs to the lessor.
  6. Repurchase and leaseback: In order to save the maintenance, management and cost of the enterprise, and focus on the core business of the enterprise, we can buy back the forklift equipment of the company after evaluation, and then lease a more suitable forklift in order to update the enterprise technology and adapt to the enterprise Development needs.
During the comprehensive evaluation, many enterprises often cannot make a reasonable judgment on the quality of the products because they do not understand the professional knowledge and technology of the forklift. Generally speaking, the superior performance of high-quality forklifts is often reflected in many aspects such as high efficiency, low cost, high reliability, good ergonomic design and convenient service.
High efficiency does not only mean high speed (driving, lifting, lowering speed), it also means that the operator needs a short time to complete a working cycle, and can maintain this efficiency throughout the working time. Many factors can drive efficiency:
Speed, such as driving speed, lifting speed and lowering speed;
Application of ergonomic design to reduce the number of operation actions;
accuracy of operation;
Application of ergonomic design to minimize fatigue;
Good vision;
When a company purchases and uses a forklift, the total annual cost includes:
purchase cost;
maintenance costs;
energy cost;
Labor costs.
The purchase cost will be spread evenly over the life of the forklift. Therefore, high-priced forklifts will reduce procurement costs due to their longer life.
The actual maintenance cost is not only related to the cost of repair parts, but also to the failure rate or time. Therefore, a high-quality forklift has lower maintenance costs due to its lower failure rate.
Energy costs will vary with forklifts in different power systems, such as electricity, diesel, liquefied petroleum gas or gasoline.
Labor costs vary with the number of drivers and their total monthly salary. The number of drivers will be reduced due to the use of efficient forklifts.
Forklift is an industrial handling vehicle, which refers to various wheeled handling vehicles for loading, unloading, stacking, and short-distance transport of palletized goods. It is widely used in ports, stations, airports, freight yards, factory workshops, warehouses, Circulation centers and distribution centers, etc., and can enter the cabins, carriages and containers for loading and unloading and handling of pallet goods. It is an indispensable device for pallet transportation and container transportation.
China's forklift manufacturing industry has come out of the dilemma of sales decline from the fourth quarter of 2009. In 2010, it achieved a full recovery in the domestic market and demonstrated its strength with a leap-forward development attitude.
According to data from the "2013-2017 China Forklift Manufacturing Industry Production and Sales Demand Forecast and Transformation and Upgrade Analysis Report" data, in 2010, China achieved 232,409 forklift sales (including exports), a year-on-year increase of 67.31%. Among them, 22,960 are electric counterweight ride-on forklifts, 7,502 are electric ride-on storage forklifts, 22,280 are electric walk-on storage forklifts, and 179,667 are internal-combustion balance forks. Domestic sales of about 190,000 units, an increase of about 70% compared to 111,350 units in 2009; export sales of about 40,000 units, compared with 27,555 units in 2009, an increase of about 60%.
China's Forklift Overseas Market Status
In 2007, the sales volume of forklifts in China reached 139,000, a year-on-year increase of 30%; the number of export forklifts was 47,000, a year-on-year increase of 78%, and the export volume accounted for about 34% of sales volume; and the increase in export contribution to sales growth reached 65%.
In 2007, the global sales of forklifts reached 907,000, a year-on-year increase of 10%. Consumption by region is as follows: Europe accounts for about 40% of the world's forklift market; followed by North America (US + Canada) market, which is about 21%; China's market share has exceeded 11%; and Japan's share does not exceed 10%; the rest of the world is close to 16%.
China's internal combustion counterbalanced forklifts account for about 80% of sales, while electric forklifts account for more than 50% of global forklift sales. This is because in the forklift market in Europe, the United States and Japan, electric forklifts have become mainstream products. Due to China s lower requirements for environmental protection, more frequent forklift operations, poor operating environment, and operating costs, the demand for forklifts in China will still tend to use internal combustion forklifts for a long time.
In the global forklift market structure, Toyota and Linde are far ahead, with annual sales revenue of more than 5 billion US dollars; while Anchor and Hangzhou Fork dominate the domestic forklift market, with a total market share of more than 50%.
For the reasons that China s forklift exports account for a small proportion of overseas markets, outstanding cost performance advantages, and export tax rebates leading to domestic enterprises export impulse, it is expected that China s forklift exports will continue to grow rapidly in the future, with a compound growth rate of not less than 30 before 2010. %. In the next three years, the annual growth rate of domestic forklift sales is expected to remain above 20%, and dependence on overseas markets will increase. Exports have become the main driving force for sales growth.
Position in forklift warehousing business process, warehousing business process:
(Receiving goods) Inbound transportation-Loading and unloading-(Storage) Temporary storage-Acceptance-Storage-Storage-Periodic inventory-(Delivery) Outbound-Loading and unloading-Transportation
Forklift work safety requirements
1. The mast must not be deformed and the welding seam de-soldering. The rolling gap of the inner and outer mast should be adjusted reasonably, not more than 1.5mm, the roller should be flexible, and the wheel and shaft should be free of cracks and defects. The amount of wheel groove wear must not be greater than 10% of the original size.
2. The tension of the two lifting chains should be uniform without distortion or distortion. The ends should be firmly connected. The pitch of the chain should not exceed 4% of the original length. Otherwise, the chain should be replaced. Sprocket rotation should be flexible.
3. The fork rack must not be severely deformed, and the welding seam should not be welded. The fork surface must be free of cracks and welds. The root angle of the fork must not be greater than 93 °, and the thickness must not be less than 90% of the original size. The height difference between the left and right fork tips must not exceed 3% of the length of the horizontal section of the fork. The positioning of the fork should be reliable, the bearing surface and positioning surface of the fork hook must not have obvious defects, the cooperation gap between the fork and the fork frame should not be too large, and the movement should be smooth.
4. The connection between the lifting cylinder and the mast should be firm, and the hinges between the tilting cylinder and the mast and frame should be firm and flexible, and the matching gap should not be too large. The oil cylinder should be well sealed, without cracks, and work smoothly. Under the rated load, the self-sinking amount of the mast in 10min is not more than 20mm, and the inclination angle is not more than 0.5 °. The lifting speed should not be less than half of the standard value at full load.
5. The overhead guard and blocking rack must be complete and effective.
6. It is strictly forbidden to stand on and off the fork, and it is not allowed to use a single fork to pick up high overloaded goods.
7. Forklift driver equipped with forklift driver's license, avoid multiple drivers for one forklift.
The main parts of the forklift's gas distribution mechanism:
Valve: The valve is divided into two types: intake valve and exhaust valve. Its function is to open and close the intake and exhaust channels. It consists of a head and a stem. The head is used to open and close the intake and exhaust passages, and the lever is used to guide the valve movement. The intake valve is made of ordinary alloy steel, and the exhaust valve is made of heat-resistant alloy steel, because the exhaust valve head is in direct contact with the combustion gas and is heated severely.
In order to ensure that the valve head and the valve seat closely fit and conduct heat, a conical joint surface is used between the valve head and the valve seat, and is ground. The angle between the cone surface and the top plane is called the valve cone angle. The commonly used valve cone angles are 30 ° and 45 °. The valve shaft is a valve motion guiding part. A groove is cut at the tail of a common valve shaft to install a conical locking piece.
Valve seat: The valve seat is a circular seat hole directly machined on the cylinder block (side-mounted valve) or cover (top-mounted valve). It cooperates with the valve to play a sealing role. Some valve seats can be processed into seat rings by wear-resistant alloy cast iron and embedded in the cylinder block or cylinder head.
Valve guide: Its role is to guide the valve for correct axial movement, and at the same time it also indirectly transmits the heat of the valve stem to the water jacket. In order to facilitate repair and replacement, the valve guide is made separately and then pressed into the cylinder block (or cylinder head). When the valve guide is pressed into the cylinder block (or cylinder head), there should be a certain amount of interference and the depth of penetration to ensure good heat transfer.
Valve spring: Its role is to ensure the close contact between the valve and the valve seat, and to slow down and overcome the inertia force generated by the valve and other transmission parts, in order to prevent the normal operation of the valve train.
Valve lifter: It transmits the pushing motion of the cam to the valve (side-mounted) or push rod (top-mounted) to control the opening and closing of the valve.
Valve putter: In the overhead valve distribution mechanism, the motion of the lifter is transmitted to the rocker arm. The putter is a straight rod made of hollow steel pipe, with ends of different shapes welded at both ends, and the upper end is concave spherical, and the ball end of the adjustment screw on the rocker arm is seated in it; the lower end is a round ball head for inserting Concave ball bearing of the rod.
Valve rocker: Its role is to transfer the movement of the tappet to the valve. It is an unequal-length two-arm lever with a round hole in the middle. The end of the long arm has an arc-shaped working surface in contact with the tail of the valve; the end of the short arm has a screw hole for installing adjustment screws and lock nuts to adjust the valve clearance. The middle is a rocker bearing with a bronze bushing inside.
Rocker shaft: It is a hollow circular shaft. It is mounted on the cylinder head with several supports. The rocker arm is sleeved on the rocker shaft and can swing in a circular arc on the shaft. The inner hole of the shaft communicates with the main oil passage, and supplies the lubricating oil of the gas distribution mechanism.
Camshaft: It is used to control the closing time and opening degree of each cylinder valve. And drive oil pumps, gasoline pumps, distributors and other accessories. It consists of an intake cam, an exhaust cam, a journal, a gear driving an oil pump and a distributor, and an eccentric wheel pushing a petrol pump rocker.
Timing gear: The camshaft is usually driven by the crankshaft through a pair of timing gears. The pinion is mounted on the front end of the crankshaft and is called the crankshaft timing gear. The large gear is installed at the front end of the camshaft and is called the camshaft timing gear. The ratio of the gears to the gears is 2: 1, which means that the crankshaft rotates for two cycles and the camshaft rotates for one cycle.
To ensure the correct gas distribution phase and ignition timing, the corresponding positions of the two gears are engraved with the meshing marks. In order to limit the axial movement of the camshaft in accordance with the change of the engine speed during operation, an axial limit device is installed in the installation [1]
(1) Inspection of vehicles
(1) Before operating the forklift, check the appearance and fill it with fuel, lubricating oil and cooling water.
(2) Check the starting, running and braking performance.
(3) Check whether the lighting and sound signals are complete and effective.
(4) During the operation of the forklift, check whether the pressure and temperature are normal.
(5) After the forklift is in operation, check the leakage and replace the seals in time.
(6) In addition to the above contents, the battery forklift truck shall also check the circuit of the battery forklift truck in accordance with the relevant inspection contents of the battery truck.
(Two) start
(1) Before starting, observe the surrounding area and confirm that there are no obstacles to the safety of the vehicle.
(2) For vehicles braked by air pressure, the brake barometer reading must reach the specified value before starting.
(3) When the forklift starts with the load, the driver should first confirm that the load is stable and reliable.
(4) Start slowly and steadily.
(Three) driving
(1) When driving, the height of the bottom of the fork from the ground should be kept 300-400mm, and the mast must be tilted backwards.
(2) Do not raise the fork too high while driving. When entering or leaving the job site or on the road, pay attention to the presence of obstacles. When the load is traveling, if the fork lifts too high, it will also increase the height of the overall center of gravity of the forklift, affecting the stability of the forklift.
(3) After unloading, lower the fork to the normal driving position before driving.
(4) When turning, if there are pedestrians or vehicles nearby, a signal should be issued and high-speed sharp turns are prohibited. High-speed sharp turns can cause the vehicle to lose lateral stability and tip over.
(5) It is strictly forbidden that the internal combustion forklift goes out when it goes downhill.
(6) For non-special circumstances, it is forbidden to brake sharply while driving.
(7) The brakes shall not be used in special cases when the load is driving more than 7 degrees and going uphill or downhill at a speed higher than first gear.
(8) When the forklift is in operation, it must comply with the traffic rules in the plant and must maintain a certain safety distance from the vehicle in front.
(9) When the forklift is in operation, the load must be at the lowest position that does not hinder driving, and the mast must be tilted back properly. Do not raise the load when stacking or loading. When moving a large object, the object obstructs the driver's line of sight. At this time, the forklift should be turned upside down.
(10) The forklift is steered by the rear wheels, so you must always pay attention to the swing of the rear of the car to avoid excessive cornering that often occurs when beginners drive.
(11) It is forbidden to make turns on the ramp and should not drive across the ramp.
(12) When the forklift truck loads downhill, it should drive backwards to prevent the cargo from falling down.
(Four) loading and unloading
(1) When loading a fork, the distance between the two forks should be adjusted as needed to balance the load between the two forks and not skew. One side of the article should be against the blocking shelf. The weight of the fork should meet the requirements of the load center curve sign.
(2) The height of the load must not obstruct the driver's vision.
(3) During the loading and unloading of articles, the forklift must be braked with a brake.
(4) When the forklift is approaching or evacuating items, the speed should be slow and steady. Be careful not to crush the wheels, wooden pads, etc. to avoid the rollers flying and hurting people.
(5) When using a fork to pick up the goods, the fork should fork as deep as possible under the load, and also pay attention that the fork tip cannot touch other goods or objects. The minimum mast tilt should be used to stabilize the load to prevent the load from sliding backwards. When the load is lowered, the mast can be tilted forward a little to facilitate the loading of the load and the fork.
(6) It is forbidden to pick up goods at high speed and use forks to collide with hard objects.
(7) When working on a forklift, it is forbidden to stand on the fork.
(8) Forklifts are prohibited from standing around the forks to prevent injuries caused by the goods falling down.
(9) It is forbidden to use fork lift personnel to engage in high-altitude operations, so as to avoid falling accidents at high altitudes.
(10) Do not use the brake to coast down.
First, the use of attachments
Compared with the traditional use of forklift truck forks to pick up cargo pallets for handling and stacking, special attachments can greatly improve the efficiency of forklift trucks and reduce operating costs. Dedicated forklift attachments can realize the functions of gripping, rotating (clockwise / counterclockwise), side shifting, pushing / pulling, flipping (forward / backward), separating / closing (adjusting fork spacing), telescopic and other functions This is an action that cannot be completed by a common forklift fork.
The significance of the application of forklift special attachments can be summarized as follows:
1. High production efficiency and low operating cost.
Mechanized handling takes less time than traditional manual handling operations, while reducing labor expenses and costs, and improving work efficiency. In the same handling cycle, the number of times the forklift moves is significantly reduced, the corresponding tires, transmission gears, and fuel consumption of the forklift are also reduced, and the operating costs are also reduced accordingly.
2. Safe and reliable operation, reducing the accident rate.
The attachments designed and produced by professional forklift attachment manufacturers for different industry conditions are designed with safety devices, and the cargo clamped (or fork) is not easy to fall under abnormal conditions, such as the pressure holding device of the clip attachment ( When carrying the cargo, the oil pipe bursts, the hydraulic system maintains pressure, and the cargo will not fall off); the end buffer device of the side-shifting attachment, etc., reduces the accident rate.
3. Small cargo loss.
With the special clamping / side-shifting / rotating functions, the goods can be safely transported, stacked or unloaded, thereby minimizing the loss of the goods. The use of attachments also reduces the frequency of use of pallets (such as palletless handling operations), and the corresponding procurement and maintenance costs are reduced.
Depending on the structure and purpose of the attachment, we can simply classify the forklift attachment as follows:
1.Side shift fork
It is used to align the goods with pallets left and right to facilitate accurate fork picking and stacking of the goods; it improves the work efficiency of the forklift, prolongs the life of the forklift, reduces the labor intensity of the operator, saves warehouse space, The utilization of the warehouse.
Faced with the working environment conditions, operation methods and different forklifts of enterprise customers in different fields, how can we choose a forklift attachment that is suitable for the working environment of the enterprise? Generally, the customer must provide the actual operating conditions and requirements of the attachment to the forklift truck manufacturer or its sales agent or attachment company. Based on this important information, forklift OEMs or their sales agents or attachment companies can only perform attachment selection.
The following are the factors to consider when selecting attachments:
(1) What kind of cargo handling by customers: such as paper rolls, soft bags, barrels, household appliances, tubes, pallets and other items.
(2) Cargo weight: (including pallet) kg, length (in the direction of travel) mm, width / diameter mm, height mm.
(3) Outer surface / contact surface (outer packaging).
(4) Transportation methods: a. Pallet transportation: dimensions of cargo pallets mm, height of pallet jacks mm; b. Palletless transportation: cargo stack spacing mm, number of cargo pieces.
(5) Specific handling information / actual environment: how the customer will handle these goods: push / grip / rotate (horizontal in the direction of travel) / roll (horizontal in the direction of travel) / lateral movement / roll (in the direction of travel) / Loading on the rear of the car / Loading on the side of the car.
(6) Customer status information: How did the customer solve the transportation problem so far? How do they want to improve? What do they think?
(7) What are the restrictions in practical application: height, length, width, weight, others.
(8) Application fields of attachments: smelters, construction sites, warehouses, special occasions, etc.
(9) Environmental factors: explosive areas, dust, high temperature, low temperature, acidity, sugar, salt, food, nutrition, beverage, etc.
(10) Forklift: Forklift model, mast type, selected attachment type, action function, according to attachment type and function, determine the number of additional oil circuits of the forklift:
a. For a set of attachments with action functions, the forklift must provide a single additional oil path (such as lateral movement of the side shifter);
b. Attachment with two sets of action functions, the forklift needs to provide dual additional oil paths (such as the tension arm of the paper roll clamp / clamping / rotation);
c. For attachments with three sets of action functions, the forklift must provide dual additional oil circuits and be equipped with a solenoid valve device (such as the opening / clamping, side-shifting, and rotation of a rotary side-shift soft bag clamp).
(11) Existing forklifts or new ones? (Is there any problem with forklift modification, such as adding additional oil circuit, etc.)
(12) Attachment installation cost (labor cost, time required for hydraulic system modification (if necessary), cost of corresponding options, etc.)
When choosing a forklift, consider the overall solution
Different storage models require different forklift trucks, and the matching modes implemented are very different in FIFO or FIFO, space utilization, operating efficiency, and investment costs. For example, traditional heavy-duty racks and counterbalanced forklifts can achieve forklift pick-up at any shelf position, with high operating efficiency, moderate investment costs, and wide application areas, but insufficient space utilization; drive-in racks often cooperate with forward-moving forklift Or use of small tonnage counterbalanced forklifts, high stacking density and good space utilization, but it is not possible to forklift goods at any shelf position;
First, fully understand the operating environment of the forklift you need, and then choose the appropriate model and configuration
What is your cargo? What size board is used? Do you want to enter the elevator or container? What is the size of the channel? ...
The forklift has the basic functions of moving goods horizontally and hoisting, as well as stacking, loading and picking capabilities. With a full understanding of the weight, volume, and shape of the cargo, the height that needs to be lifted, and the conditions of the aisle inside the plant (aisle width, floor load, whether anti-static, dust-proof, pollution-proof, explosion-proof, noise) and other information are available, you can basically Determine what kind of forklift you need and how to configure it. At the same time, you can consult 1-3 different forklift companies to reduce the asymmetry of information.
Cost calculation
There are many company business owners who never carefully calculate the purchase cost in the process of buying a forklift. To eliminate waste on equipment, you should clearly know the number of equipment you need in order to make scientific and maximum use and convert it into productivity.
Forklift prices are just the tip of the iceberg
If we only analyze from the perspective of investment cost, for a simple example, to move the goods from A to 100 meters away from B, we can choose not to spend a penny to buy a forklift and completely move the goods by hand, or Choose to use forklift equipment with a value of several thousand yuan, tens of thousands of yuan, hundreds of thousands of yuan, or millions of yuan to move the goods. From the initial purchase cost of the forklift, the difference is extremely different, but if you calculate its comprehensive operating cost It may be that the cost of the single piece of cargo required for the least equipment investment is the highest.
Choices in leases and direct purchases
Leasing forklifts has become a popular trend in developed countries in Europe and the United States, and one-third of construction machinery in the United States is completed through leasing. Due to different national conditions, the rental of forklift trucks in China is still in its infancy. In economically developed areas (coastal), forklift leasing is in full swing. It is conceivable that in the future, China's forklift leasing business will, like developed countries, occupy a very important proportion in the material handling and procurement industry.
Fourth, positioning the right brand
There are more than 500 brands of forklifts worldwide, and there are more than a hundred of them in China. Of the top 20 forklift manufacturers in the world, 90% have manufacturing plants and agents in China. Go to professional media and organizations to learn about the forklift brands sold in the Chinese market.
V. Final decision
If your company wants to make large-scale purchases of forklifts (more than 10 units), it needs to be entrusted to a professional and independent bidding company (knowledge of forklifts and industrial vehicles) or a logistics consulting company to assist. In order to save procurement costs and prevent black-box operations in the procurement process, the final decision-making power must be in their own hands.
Finally, it should be noted that the cheapest forklift supplier may not be the best. Just like you buy other consumer goods, you pay one price for one price. Forklifts are industrial products and require long-term stable service as support. If a supplier's forklift is below the normal selling price, you can imagine how good his service is after buying it. Smart buyers don't just look at the price of the forklift, they need to make a comprehensive evaluation before making a decision.
Note for use of mechanical forklifts:
The forklift manufacturing industry is located in the world's largest and most promising market and has certain development potential. At the same time, a series of derivative industries such as forklift maintenance industry have become indispensable new industries. Then repair and maintenance can be divided into primary forklift maintenance and secondary forklift maintenance.
Then when following the routine maintenance items, the following level of maintenance work can be added.
1. Check whether the thermostat works normally.
2. Check whether the shifting of the transmission is normal.
3. Check the tightness of the fan belt.
4. Check if the diesel tank oil inlet filter is blocked or damaged, and clean or replace the filter.
5. Check and adjust the valve clearance.
6. Check and adjust the clearance between the brake pads of the hand and foot brakes and the brake drum.
7. Check whether the generator and starter motor are installed firmly, and whether the connection head is clean and firm. Check whether the carbon brushes and commutators are worn.
8. Replace the oil in the oil pan, check if the crankcase ventilation connection is intact, and clean the oil filter and diesel filter element.
9. Check the cylinder pressure or vacuum.
10. Check whether the wheels are installed firmly, whether the tire pressure meets the requirements, and remove any debris embedded in the tread.
11. Parts are dismantled due to maintenance work. Forklift road test should be performed after reassembly.
(1) The braking performance under different degrees should be free of deviation and meandering. On steep slopes, it can stop reliably after the hand brake is tightened.
(2) Listen for abnormal noise when the engine is running under acceleration, deceleration, heavy load or no load.
(3) After a mileage of road test, check the brake, transmission, front axle housing, gear pump for overheating.
(4) Whether the lifting speed of the fork rack is normal and whether there is trembling.
12. Check whether the multi-way directional valve, lifting cylinder, tilting cylinder, steering cylinder and gear pump are working properly.
Matters needing attention for summer use of electric forklifts:
First, the characteristics of high temperature and humidity
Under high temperature and high humidity conditions, the temperature is high and the weather is hot, which will also have a great impact on the driver's safe operation.
1. The heat dissipation performance of the engine is deteriorated under high temperature, and the temperature is likely to be too high, which makes its power and economy worse.
2. It is easy to cause the water tank to "open the pot", the fuel supply system to be blocked, the battery "depleted", the hydraulic brake to fail due to the expansion and deformation of the bowl, and the tire pressure to explode as the outside temperature rises.
3. Under the condition of high temperature and high humidity, the lubricating oil (grease) of various parts of the forklift is apt to become thinner, and the lubricating performance is reduced, which causes the wear of the parts to increase during heavy load.
4. Due to the high temperature, coupled with mosquito bites, the driver's sleep is affected, so it is prone to mental fatigue and heat stroke at work, which is not conducive to job safety.
5. There are more thunderstorms due to the road surface. There is water in the loading and unloading site, which reduces the adhesion and is easy to slide sideways, which affects the safety of forklifts, people and cargo.
Matters needing attention when driving
1. Before entering the heatstroke period, make preparations in advance and release the winter lubricating grease from the engine, drive axle, transmission, steering gear, etc. After cleaning, fill in the summer lubricating grease according to regulations.
2. Clean the water channel, remove the scale from the cooling system, and clear the radiator fins. Check the tightness of the fan drive belt frequently.
3. Properly adjust the generator regulator to reduce the charging current of the generator.
4. Pay attention to prevent the engine from overheating during operation. Pay attention to the indication of the coolant temperature meter at any time. If the temperature of the coolant is too high, take measures to reduce the temperature. To maintain the quantity of coolant, care must be taken to prevent the coolant from boiling and causing burns.
5. Always check the temperature and pressure of the tire, and if necessary, stop in a cool place and continue the operation after the tire temperature is lowered. Do not reduce the pressure and temperature by deflating or pouring cold water to avoid reducing the tire life.
6. Always check the braking performance to prevent the failure of brake failure caused by aging, expansion and deformation and brake fluid vaporization of the master cylinder or sub-pump bowl.
7. Adjust the density of the battery electrolyte, and clear the ventilation holes on the battery cover, keep the electrolyte 10-15mm higher than the separator, and fill with distilled water as appropriate.
8. Make sure you get enough sleep before work and keep energetic. If you feel mental fatigue, faintness, or unresponsiveness during the operation, you should stop and rest immediately, or wipe your face with cold water to cheer up to ensure the safety of driving and operation.
9, do a good job in preventing heat and cooling to prevent heat stroke.
After the final inspection to confirm that all parts are good, they can be put into normal use [1] .


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