What Is the Hypodermis?

The subcutaneous tissue is the loose connective tissue and adipose tissue below the skin, which connects the skin and muscles, and is often called superficial fascia. The subcutaneous tissue is located between the skin and deep tissues, making the skin mobile. The thickness of the subcutaneous tissue varies greatly depending on the individual, age, gender, location, nutrition, disease, etc. Generally, the abdomen and buttocks are the thickest and the fat tissue is rich. The eyelids, the back of the hands, the back of the feet, and the penis are the thinnest and contain no fatty tissue.

Basic Information

Chinese name
Subcutaneous tissue
Make up
Loose connective tissue and fatty lobules
Function
Connect, buffer mechanical pressure, store energy, etc.
Pathological changes
Vulnerability to trauma, ischemia can cause degeneration and necrosis

Subcutaneous tissue composition

The subcutaneous tissue is composed of loose connective tissue and fatty lobules, which are connected to the dermis and connected to the fascia, muscular aponeurosis, or periosteum below. The cytoplasm of adipocytes is transparent, and the nucleus is skewed to the inner edge of the cell. Fat cells aggregate to form a first-level leaflet, and many first-level leaflets form a second-level leaflet. There are fibrous spaces or trabeculae around the second-level leaflet. Fat compartment contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerves, small sweat glands and apocrine sweat glands.

Subcutaneous tissue effect

The subcutaneous tissue has the functions of connecting, buffering mechanical pressure, storing energy, and maintaining thermal insulation. In addition, because this layer of tissue is loose and the blood vessels are abundant, subcutaneous injections are often done here clinically.

Histopathological changes in subcutaneous tissue

Subcutaneous tissue is susceptible to trauma, ischemia, and especially adjacent inflammation, which can cause degeneration and necrosis. Various lesions appearing in the dermis can be reflected in the subcutaneous tissue. Common lesions are mainly vasculitis and panniculitis.

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